Southern Anthology

Families on the Frontiers of the Old South

Anthony Wydeville, 2nd Earl Rivers, Baron Scales, KG

Anthony Wydeville, 2nd Earl Rivers, Baron Scales, KG[1, 2]

Male 1440 - 1483  (~ 43 years)

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  • Name Anthony Wydeville  [3
    Sir Anthony Wydeville
    Sir Anthony Wydeville
    Second Earl of Rivers
    Arms of Anthony Wydeville, KG
    Arms of Anthony Wydeville, KG
    Suffix 2nd Earl Rivers, Baron Scales, KG 
    Born ca. 1440  Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [4
    Gender Male 
    Military 29 Mar 1461  Towton, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [5
    Battle of Towton (Yorkist victory) 
    Political 1469 
    Second Earl Rivers 
    Political 8 Feb 1478  Westminster, London Find all individuals with events at this location  [6
    Edward's brother, Clarence (George), is condemned in Parliament. Earl Rivers served as a trier.  
    Died 26 Jun 1483  Pontefract Castle, Pontefract, West Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [8, 9
    • In his bid to win the English crown after the death of brother Edward IV, Richard Gloucester executed Earl Rivers, Anthony Wydville, and Rivers half-brother, Sir Richard Grey. Rivers and Grey were returning Edward V to London to assume the throne at the time of their arrest by the Duke of Gloucester. Shakespeare has Richard address the Young king upon his arrival in London:

      Sweet prince, the untainted virtue of your years
      Hath not yet dived into the world's deceit
      Nor more can you distinguish of a man
      Than of his outward show; which, God he knows,
      Seldom or never jumpeth with the heart.
      Those uncles which you want were dangerous;
      Your grace attended to their sugar'd words,
      But look'd not on the poison of their hearts :
      God keep you from them, and from such false friends!

      Richard III, Act III, Scene I.

      The fate Edward and his brother Richard, the Duke of York, known to history as "the Princes in the Tower," remains unknown although the consensus is assassination. With the passage of the Titulus Regius by Parliament, Richard had the marriage of Edward and Elizabeth declared bigamous and their children illegitimate. Only war restored the flagging fortunes of the Wydvilles. Richard's death at the Battle of Bosworth brought Henry Tudor to the throne. His marriage to Elizabeth of York (River's niece and Edward IV's daughter) resulted in the revocation of the Titulus Regius. [7]
    Pontefract Castle
    Pontefract Castle
    Alexander Keirincx
    • Mancini described Rivers as, "'a kindly, serious and just man, and one tested by every vicissitude of life. Whatever his prosperity, he had injured nobody, though benefiting many, and therefore he had entrusted to him the care and direction of the King's son.' Rivers and his late father, reported the Milanese ambassador, were 'men of very great valour'. More thought Rivers to be a man of honour. To his contemporaries, he was indeed the very mirror of Chaucer's 'parfait, gentil knight.' -brave, chivalrous, cultivated, elegant, charming, pious and well-educated, and his feats in the jousting lists were renowned."

      Excerpt From: Weir, Alison. The Princes in the Tower. The Random House Publishing Group, 2011-09-28. iBooks. This material may be protected by copyright.

    • Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 62, "Woodville, Anthony" by James Tait

      WOODVILLE or WYDVILLE, ANTHONY, Baron Scales and second Earl Rivers (1442? -1483), eldest son of Richard Woodville, first earl Rivers [q. v.], and his wife Jacquetta, duchess of Bedford, was born in or about 1442 (Baker, ii. 162). Lionel Woodville [q. v.] was a younger brother. In January 1460 his father took him to Sandwich, where both were surprised and captured by a band of Yorkists and carried off to Calais to be severely "rated" by the Yorkist leaders for upstart insolence in taking part in their recent attainder at Coventry (Will. Worc. p. 771; Paston Letters, i. 506). He married, between 25 July 1460 (when her father was slain by the Yorkists) and 29 March 1461, Elizabeth, baroness Scales and Neucelles (Newcells) in her own right, the childless widow of Sir Henry Bourchier, second son of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex [q. v.] At Towton Woodville fought on the Lancastrian side, and was at first reported to have fallen (ib. ii. 5, 8; Cal. State Papers, Venetian, i. 103, 105?6). Regarding the cause of Henry VI as now "irremediably lost," he and his father transferred their allegiance to Edward IV (ib. i. 111). His recognition as Lord Scales in right of his wife followed in 1462, and under this title he was summoned to parliament from 22 Dec. in that year (Dugdale, ii. 231; Complete Peerage, vi. 371). At this moment he was helping to direct the siege of Alnwick Castle, which fell on 6 Jan. following (Paston Letters, ii. 121). After his sister Elizabeth's marriage to the king in 1464 his advancement became rapid. Two years later he succeeded the Duke of Milan as a knight of the Garter, and received a grant of the lordship of the Isle of Wight, of which he seems to have been the last holder. He was pushing a claim to the disputed estates of Sir John Fastolf [q. v.] (ib. ii. 214).

      Scales, like his father before him, was an accomplished knight, and his tournament with the Bastard of Burgundy in June 1467 aroused more than national interest. Two years before, at the instigation of the queen's ladies and with the permission of the king, who was probably already meditating a Burgundian alliance, he despatched a challenge to Anthony, count of La Roche, in the Ardennes, natural son of Philip, duke of Burgundy, and brother of Charles the Bold, a knight of great renown (Excerpta Historica, pp. 178?84). The Bastard promptly accepted the challenge, but the wars in which Burgundy was soon engaged delayed his coming over until May 1467 (ib. p. 173; Foedera, xi. 573; Will. Worc. p. 786). Great preparations were made for the combat, which took place in Smithfield on 11 and 12 June before a splendid audience, the king himself presiding over the lists. In the first course on horseback the Bastard's horse struck its head against the iron of Scales's saddle and fell upon its rider, who waived the offer of a second horse, remarking to the chronicler, Olivier de la Marche (p. 524), that Scales had fought a beast that day, but should fight a man on the morrow. On the 12th they met on foot with axes, and fought so fiercely that the king, seeing that Scales was getting the better of his antagonist cried ?Whoo!? and threw down his warder. The battle was declared drawn (Excerpta Historica, pp. 211?12; Fabyan, p. 656; Will. Worc. p. 787; cf. Stow, Annals). A history of this famous tournament has been preserved in a manuscript belonging to Scales's friend, Sir John Paston (who was engaged to his cousin, Anne Haute), now in the British Museum (Lansdowne MS. 285). It is printed with some original documents relating to the affair in Bentley's "Excerpta Historica." The death of Duke Philip, which recalled the Bastard to Brussels, hastened the conclusion of the negotiations for a marriage between his brother, the new duke, and Edward IV's sister Margaret. Scales was a member of the embassy which went over in September and definitely arranged the match (F?dera, xi. 590). He accompanied the bride to Bruges as her presenter in June 1468, and broke eleven lances with Adolf of Cleves in the jousts with which the marriage was celebrated (Olivier de la Marche, p. 560; Paston Letters, ii. 318). The Burgundian alliance threatening trouble with France, Edward got together four thousand men to assist the Duke of Brittany against his suzerain, and entrusted (7 Oct.) the command of the fleet which was to convey it across to Scales, now governor of Portsmouth (F?dera, xi. 630; Will. Worc. p. 792). Louis XI at once came to terms with Duke Francis, but the fleet put to sea about 25 Oct., on a rumour that Queen Margaret had come down to Harfleur. After aimlessly cruising about for a month, it returned to the Isle of Wight (ib.)

      Scales and his father were with the king in Norfolk in June 1469 when the Nevilles sprang their mine against the Woodville ascendency. According to a statement not improbable in itself, Edward sent them away in the hope of allaying the discontent (Wavrin, v. 580). Scales somehow contrived to escape the tragic fate which befell his father and brother after the skirmish at Edgecot (26 July 1469). It made him Earl Rivers and constable of England, but he afterwards resigned this latter dignity to the Duke of Gloucester (Excerpta Historica, p. 241). He was at Southampton in the spring of 1470 when Warwick on his flight to Calais tried to cut out his great ship the Trinity from that harbour, and succeeded in repulsing the attempt (Warkworth, p. 9). Edward made him lieutenant of Calais and entrusted him with the operations in the Channel against the rebels and their protector Louis XI (Olivier de la Marche, p. 529; Dugdale, ii. 231; but cf. Doyle). He is credited by Wavrin (v. 604) with a victory over Warwick's fleet in the Seine. He shared Edward's subsequent exile in the Low Countries, and, returning with him in 1471, rescued him from an awkward situation at York and helped to secure him victory at Barnet (ib. pp. 611, 640, 647, 652). While the king was crushing the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury, Rivers beat off the Bastard of Fauconberg's attack upon London, and was made councillor (8 July) to the young Prince of Wales (Warkworth, p. 19; Doyle).

      Rivers's recent vicissitudes of fortune had, however, made a great impression on his mind; having been relieved, as he afterwards explained in the preface to the "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," by the goodness of God he was exhorted to dedicate his recovered life to his service. In October 1471 he obtained a royal request for safe-conduct for a voyage to Portugal "to be at a day upon the Saracens" (F?dera, xi. 727; Paston Letters, iii. 14, 32). The king was reported to have been not best pleased with his leaving him (ib. iii. 11). There was a rumour that he had sailed on Christmas-eve (ib. iii. 33). He returned in any case before 23 July following, when he was empowered to arrange an alliance with the Duke of Brittany (F?dera, xi. 760). Soon after he took over a thousand men-at-arms and archers to Brittany, but in November was said to be coming hastily home, disease having made great ravages among his men (Paston Letters, iii. 59). In February 1473 he became one of the Prince of Wales's guardians and chief butler of England. But his present prosperity did not cause him to forget the "tyme of grete tribulacion and adversite" by which it had been reached, and in the summer of this year he went by sea to the jubilee and pardon at Santiago de Compostella. He returned, perhaps through Italy, to be appointed (10 Nov.) governor to the young prince, a dignified post which, as he tells us, gave him greater leisure for his literary occupations. But it was not uninterrupted. In the first year of his office he was twice sent to try and induce Charles the Bold to abandon the siege of Neuss for a campaign against Louis XI, and in 1475 he took part in the military parade which ended at Picquigny (Commines, i. 321; Doyle). But his badge was now the scallop-shells, and in the autumn he went on a pilgrimage to Rome, whence he visited the shrine of St. Nicholas at Bari and other holy places of southern Italy (Paston Letters, iii. 162; Excerpta Historica, p. 245; Cal. State Papers, Venetian, i. 133). Returning from Rome early in 1476, he was robbed of all his jewels and plate, estimated as worth a thousand marks or more, at Torre di Baccano, a few miles north of the city. Some of the stolen property was sold at Venice, and Rivers having applied for restitution, the signoria decided that this should be done gratuitously, out of deference for the king of England and his lordship (ib. i. 136). Sixtus IV invested him with the title of defender and director of papal causes in England (Caxton at the end of "The Cordyale," 1478). On his way north he visited (7?8 June) the camp at Morat of the luckless Duke Charles (cf. Kirk's Charles the Bold, iii. 370?1). A greater honour than any that had yet befallen Rivers was presently in contemplation. His first wife had died during his visit to Compostella. In 1478 a marriage was arranged for him with Margaret, sister of James III of Scotland (Foedera, xii. 171; Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, ii. 117). Edward bestowed upon him Thorney and three other honours, the Scots parliament voted twenty thousand marks for the marriage, and a safe-conduct was sent to the bride on 22 Aug. 1479 (ib. ii. 120; F?dera, xii. 97, 162; Ramsay, ii. 437). But the match was suddenly broken off owing, it is surmised, to the discovery of Edward's intrigues with her brother's subjects.

      When the king died (9 April 1483), Rivers was at Ludlow with the young prince; most of his relatives were in London. Edward's nomination of Gloucester as protector meant the end of the Woodville predominance. But if Edward IV supposed that the Woodvilles would quietly accept a subordinate position, he miscalculated. Rivers started from Ludlow with the young king, his own half-brother Richard Grey, and a retinue limited by orders to two thousand, on 24 April, and was at Stony Stratford on the 29th. Learning that Gloucester on his way south from Yorkshire had just reached Northampton, ten miles in his rear, Rivers and Grey rode back to meet him. Gloucester and Buckingham entertained them at supper in apparent cordiality, but next morning took steps to prevent them reaching the king before themselves. Rivers protested, but was charged with attempting "to set distance between the king and them," put under arrest with Grey, and sent off in safe keeping to Sheriff-Hutton Castle, near York, which had come to Gloucester through his wife (Rous, p. 212; More; Stow). More, though friendly to them, admits that the discovery of large quantities of arms and armour in their baggage created a general impression that their designs were treasonable.

      At Sheriff-Hutton on 23 June Rivers made his will, in which he gave instructions that if he died south of the Trent he should be buried in the chapel of "our Lady of Pewe" beside St. Stephen's College at Westminster, which owed to him various papal privileges (Excerpta Historica, pp. 245?6). But being removed to Pontefract and ordered for execution, he directed that he should be buried there "before an Image of our blissid Lady with my Lord Richard" (ib. p. 248), appealed to Gloucester to see his will executed, and wrote the pathetic "balet" on the unsteadfastness of fortune beginning

      Sumwhat musying,
      And more mornyng

      (Rous, p. 214; Ritson, Ancient Songs, ii. 3). It is uncertain whether he was given the form of trial before his execution, which was carried out on 25 June by Sir Richard Radcliffe [q. v.] (Excerpta Historica, i. 244). Rous (p. 213) says that the Earl of Northumberland was his chief judge; but in any case he was deprived of his legal right to trial by his peers. A hair shirt he was found to be wearing next his skin was hung up before the image of the Virgin in the church of the Carmelites at Doncaster (Rous, pp. 213?14).

      Rivers has been deservedly characterised as the noblest and most accomplished of all Richard III's victims (Gairdner, p. 73). "Vir, haud facile discernas, manuve aut consilio promptior" was the verdict of Sir Thomas More; "un tres gentil chevalier" that of Commines (i. 321). But the warmest testimony to his virtues comes from Caxton, with whose name that of his friend and patron will always be associated. In the printer's epilogue to the "Cordyale," after recording the earl's devotion to works of piety, he concludes: "It seemeth that he conceiveth wel the mutabilite and the unstableness of this present lyf, and that he desireth with a greet zele and spirituell love our goostlye help and perpetual salvacion, and that we shal abhorre and utterly forsake thabominable and dampnable synnes which communely be now a dayes." This zeal for morality dictated the choice of the French works which he translated and had printed by Caxton. The "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," the first book printed in England (1477), was translated by Rivers (from Jean de Teonville's French version of the Latin original, lent him by a friend to beguile his voyage to Compostella in 1473) because he found it "a glorious fair myrrour to all good Christen peple to behold and understonde." A few months later (February 1478) his translation of the "wise and holsom" "Proverbs of Christine de Pisan" "set in metre" issued from Caxton's press, followed in March 1479 by his version of the "Cordyale," "multiplied to goo abrood among the peple, that thereby more surely myght be remembred The Four Last Thingis undoubtably comyng." Caxton alludes to others that had passed through his hands, but whether this means that he printed them is not clear. Besides these translations, Rivers wrote ?diverse Balades agenst the seven dedely synnes,? but the only specimen of his muse that has been preserved is the gentle lament on the fickleness of fortune which Rous ascribes to the last days of his life (see above).

      The only known portrait of Rivers is contained in an illumination in a Lambeth manuscript representing the earl presenting one of his books and its printer to Edward IV. Horace Walpole had it reproduced as a frontispiece to his "Royal and Noble Authors," and an engraving of Rivers's head is in Doyle's "Official Baronage." It shows a clean-shaven intellectual face.

      Rivers was twice married, but left no legitimate issue. Lady Scales, his first wife, died on 1 Sept. 1473, and, after the failure of the negotiations for his marriage to the Scottish princess, he took for his second wife Mary, daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Fitz-Lewis of Horndon, Essex, by Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset. She survived him, and married secondly Sir John Neville, illegitimate son of the second Earl of Westmorland. Rivers had a natural daughter, Margaret, who became the wife of Sir Robert Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire [see under Poyntz, Sir Francis]. His brother Richard succeeded him as third (and last) Earl Rivers.

      [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Rymer's F?dera, original edition; State Papers, Venetian, ed. Rawdon Brown; William of Worcester (with Stevenson's Wars of the English in France) and Wavrin's Chronicle in the Rolls Ser.; Warkworth's Chronicle, ed. Camden Soc.; Rous's Chronicle, ed. Hearne; Fabyan, ed. Ellis; Commines's Mémoires, ed. Dupont; Olivier de la Marche's Mémoires, ed. Buchon; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner; More's Vita Ricardi III, ed. 1689; Stow's Annals, ed. 1631; Bentley's Excerpta Historica, 1831; Dugdale's Baronage; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; Gairdner's Richard III, ed. 1898; other authorities in the text.]

      J. T-t. [10]
    Person ID I9437  Dickinson
    Last Modified 17 Jul 2015 

    Father Richard Wydeville, 1st Earl Rivers, KG,   b. ca. 1405, Maidstone, Kent Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 12 Aug 1469, Kenilworth Castle, Kenilworth, Warwickshire Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 64 years) 
    Relationship Birth 
    Mother Jacquette de Luxembourg, Dcss of Bedford, Ctss of Rivers,   b. ca. 1416,   d. 30 May 1472  (Age ~ 56 years) 
    Relationship Birth 
    Married ca. 1436  [11, 12
    Family ID F2559  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Gwenllian Stradling  [13, 14, 15
    +1. Margaret Wydeville,   d. Bef 1520, Iron Acton, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [Birth]
    Last Modified 22 Jun 2014 
    Family ID F2558  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Elizabeth Scales, Baroness Scales,   b. Abt 1438, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Sep 1473, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 35 years) 
    Married Abt 1460  England Find all individuals with events at this location  [16
    • Wydeville was summoned to Parliament on 22 Dec 1462 as Baron Scales.
    Last Modified 22 Jun 2014 
    Family ID F2569  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Mary FitzLewis, Lady Rivers,   b. Abt 1465, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married 1480  [17
    Last Modified 22 Jun 2014 
    Family ID F2570  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - ca. 1440 - Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary - Battle of Towton (Yorkist victory) - 29 Mar 1461 - Towton, Yorkshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsPolitical - Edward's brother, Clarence (George), is condemned in Parliament. Earl Rivers served as a trier. - 8 Feb 1478 - Westminster, London Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 26 Jun 1483 - Pontefract Castle, Pontefract, West Yorkshire, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Documents
    Caradoc's History of Wales
    Caradoc's History of Wales
    Howell Thomas Evans, Wales and the Wars of the Roses (London: Cambridge University Press, 1915), 44
    Howell Thomas Evans, Wales and the Wars of the Roses (London: Cambridge University Press, 1915), 44

    Knights of the Order of St. George of the Garter
    Knights of the Order of St. George of the Garter
    "The Order of the Garter is the most senior and the oldest British Order of Chivalry and was founded by Edward III in 1348." The official website of the British Monarchy.

  • Sources 
    1. [S336463] Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, Charles Cawley, (Online: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy at, 20XX),

    2. [S165] The Wars of the Roses: The Fall of the Plantagenets and the Rise of the Tudors, Dan Jones, (New York: Viking, 2014), 265ff.
      "When Edward IV died, his eldest son was at Ludlow, the sumptuous castle in Shropshire that served as the seat of the council over which he presided as Prince of Wales. The princes' council was convened under his authority, but in practice all its business was transacted by the young man's governor, tutor and uncle, Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers. For more than ten years Rivers had served as guide and mentor to the Prince of Wales, keeping him busy in a life that his father had long ago abandoned. He spent long hours with 'horses, dogs and other youthful exercises to invigorate his body.' The queen's forty-three-year-old brother was a paragon of chivalry and an enthusiastic patron and practitioner of the learned piety of the Renaissance. Reputed to be the finest knight in England, it was Rivers who had been afforded the honor of jousting the Bastard of Burgundy in the famous tournament of 1467. Since then he had sepent much of his life in the role of a knight-errant,riding around Eurpoe making war on the infidel while wearing a hair shirt beneath his heavy armor. Rivers had fought the Saracens in Portugal, he had been on pilgrimages to Rome and Santiago de Compostela, he was on good terms with Pope Sixtus IV and he was an enthusiastic man of letters." Jones, 265-266.

    3. [S336458] Elizabeth of York: A Tudor Queen and Her World, Alison Weir, (New York: Balentine Books, 2013), 40-41.

    4. [S336429] Britain's Royal Families: A Complete Genealogy, Alison Weir, (London: Vintage Books, 2008), 124.

    5. [S165] The Wars of the Roses: The Fall of the Plantagenets and the Rise of the Tudors, Dan Jones, (New York: Viking, 2014), 200.

    6. [S336458] Elizabeth of York: A Tudor Queen and Her World, Alison Weir, (New York: Balentine Books, 2013), 57-58.

    7. [S12] Foundation: The History of England from its Earliest Beginnings to the Tudors, Peter Ackroyd, (New York: St Martin's Press, 2011), 404-10.

    8. [S37] Blood Sisters: The Women Behind the Wars of the Roses, Sarah Gristwood, (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 186.

    9. [S155] Richard III: England's Black Legend, Desmond Seward, (New York: Pegasus Books, 2014), 93-95, 108-109.
      "It was not even judicial murder, but murder pure and simple."

    10. [S336351] Dictionary of National Biography, 63 volumes, Sir Sidney Lee, ed., (New York: McMillan and Company, 1885-1900), Public Domain., vol. 62, 410-13.

    11. [S37] Blood Sisters: The Women Behind the Wars of the Roses, Sarah Gristwood, (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 62.

    12. [S165] The Wars of the Roses: The Fall of the Plantagenets and the Rise of the Tudors, Dan Jones, (New York: Viking, 2014), 199.
      Jones gives the date as 1437.

    13. [S336449] Wales and the Wars of the Roses, Howell Thomas Evans, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915), 44.

    14. [S336450] The History of Wales, Caradoc of Llancarvan, Sir John Price, William Wynne , (London: T. Edwards, 1774).

    15. [S21] The Ricardian: Journal of the Richard III Society, (The Richard III Society), Lynda Pidgeon, "Antony Wydevile, Lord Scales and Earl Rivers: Family, Friends and Affinity. Part 2," vol. 16, 9 (2006).
      "A more certain candidate for friendship must be Antony's mistress, Gwentilian. She was the daughter of Sir William Stradling of Glamorgan. Possibly they met through the Wydevile connection with the Herberts: Sir Henry Stradling, her nephew, had married Elizabeth Herbert, sister of William, Earl of Pembroke. Antony could have had some common ground with the Stradlings-Sir Henry had gone on pilgrimage to Jerusalem as had his father and grandfather-but how they met can only be conjecture. Antony's relationship with Gwentilian produced a daughter Margaret, who married Robert Poyntz of Iron Acton. The Herbert connection is still evident for Robert Poyntz was the ward of Thomas Herbert in 1467. Robert was aged about seventeen in 1467, his marriage to Antony's daughter taking place sometime before 1480 when their first child Antony was born. However, Margaret's date of birth is again conjecture: was she the child mentioned in the Howard Household Book in 1465? If not who was the child that Howard gave a Christmas gift to Antony's daughter was presumably the result of a relationship with Gwentilian that took place before his marriage to Elizabeth. Neither his mistress nor the child is mentioned in his will and too much could be made out of a small gift at Christmas. Any other friends that Antony may have had would most likely be found within his family and affinity and cannot easily be identified."

    16. [S336429] Britain's Royal Families: A Complete Genealogy, Alison Weir, (London: Vintage Books, 2008), 111.

    17. [S21] The Ricardian: Journal of the Richard III Society, (The Richard III Society), Lynda Pidgeon, "Antony Wydevile, Lord Scales and Earl Rivers: Family, Friends and Affinity. Part 2," vol. 16, 4 (2006).