Southern Anthology

Families on the Frontiers of the Old South

Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester

Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester[1, 2]

Male 1243 - 1295  (52 years)

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  • Name Gilbert de Clare 
    Arms de Clare
    Arms de Clare
    Suffix 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester 
    Born 2 Sep 1243  Christchurch, Hampshire Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Military 14 May 1264  Lewes, East Sussex Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Battle of Lewes 
    • Gloucester was commanding under, and allied with, the reformer Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, when Henry III was defeated at Lewes. Henry had been in command of a numerically superior force; however, Leicester was able to turn his flank when Prince Edward rashly chased a contingent of the Montfortians from the field.
    Military 4 Aug 1265  Evesham, Worcestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Battle of Evesham 
    • Battle of Evesham. Gloucester was one of the prominent magnates in the Second Barons War (1264-1267). He was with Earls Bigod and Montfort when Henry III was challenged over his preferred treatment of his in-laws, the Lusignans, and supported the Provisions of Oxford, fighting with Montfort at Lewes. But Gloucester was not an enthusiastic reformer, and, being keen on the direction of the political winds, threw his lot with the royalists after Lewes. He fought with Prince Edward at Evesham, where Montfort's tiny army was crushed and Montfort was killed and mutilated. [3]
    Possessions Apr 1268  Caerphilly, South Wales Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Caerphilly Castle 
    • Gilbert was the prime Marcher who contested Llywelyn in Wales. Both laid claim to Glamorgan; however, Gilbert proved the stronger of the two and his successes invited other Marcher depredations. Gilbert began construction of Caerphilly Castle in April 1268. "The scale of his effort can still be appreciated, for the fortress he fashioned...remains one of the mightiest examples of medieval architecture, and was at that time the single greatest castle in the British Isles...." Morris at 134. [4]
    Caerphilly Castle
    Caerphilly Castle
    Died 7 Dec 1295  Monmouth Castle, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  [5
    Buried Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gilbert de Clare
    Gilbert de Clare
    Tewkesbury Abbey
    Notes 
    • CLARE, GILBERT de, called the 'Red,' ninth Earl of Clare, seventh Earl of Hertford, and eighth Earl of Gloucester (1243-1295), the son of Richard, eighth earl of Clare [q. v.], by his wife, Maud, daughter of John de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, was born at Christchurch in Hampshire, 2 Sept. 1243 (Teickes. Ann. 130). In the early part of 1253 he was married to Alice of Angouleme, Henry IIFs niece, and, though but nine years old, is said to have taken part in the Paris tournament held in honour of the occasion (matt. Paris, v. 366; Tewkei.Ann. 152; Duodale, Baronage, i. 213). He succeeded to his father's estates in July 1262, and became Earl of Gloucester. Early in 1263 (22 March) he refused to take the oath of allegiance to Prince Edward at Westminster. De Montfort returned to England about 25 April, and with him Gloucester acted in the Oxford parliament (20 May), when the opponents of the provisions were declared public enemies. Shortly afterwards, being dissatisfied with the king's attitude, he helped Be Montfort in his attack on the Bishop of Hereford (Dunst. Ann. 220-2 ; Rymer, i. 426; Wykes, i. 133), but held aloof from politics for a few months afterwards. He was probably among the many nobles who, according to Rishanger (Camd. Soc. 15), went over to the royal side about October (cf. Wykes, 140). But by the early part of April 1264 he must have been in open rebellion against the king, for he seems to have conducted the massacre of the Jews in Canterbury about the same time that de Montfort was slaughtering those of London (c. 10 April). A little later Henry seized his castle of Eangston on his way to the relief of Rochester, and very shortly after this captured the Countess of Gloucester at Tunbridge Castle. The lady, however, being the king's cousin, was set free (Dunst. Ann. 230 ; Rishangeb, Rolls Series, 22). Gloucester was now recognised as the second leader of the baronial party. The negotiations immediately preceding the battle of Lewes were conducted in his name and that of De Montfort, and both were publicly denounced as traitors on 12 May. Just before the engagement (14 May) Smion knighted Gilbert and his brother Thomas (Ann. Wint. 451). In the actual battle the young earl led the centre of the baronial army (Prothero, 277) ; and it was to him that the king surrendered his sword when the day was lost, knowing him to be 'nobiliorem et ceteris potentiorem' (Wav. Ann. 357).

      From this moment the Earls of Leicester and Gloucester were supreme. The mise of Lewes contained a special clause exempting them from any punishment for their conduct (Rishanger, Camd. Soc. 38). By the arrangement of 9 June they were empowered to nominate a council of nine, in concert with the Bishop of Chichester ({sc|Rymer}}, 444). On 20 Not. Guido, the papal legate, excommunicated Gloucester along with other rebels (ib. 447). Ten days later (30 Nov.) the first mutterings of disagreement between Leicester and Gloucester may have broken out at the Oxford parliament, which was called to discuss the conduct of the royal partisans who had taken refuge in the marches (Oseney Ann. 154). Gilbert was with the king and Simon at Gloucester when the marcher lords were banished to Ireland for a year. Owing to the quarrel of the two earls the lords neglected to obey the order of exile, and by Gilbert's connivance remained in the kingdom (Lib. de Ant. Leg. 70 ; Wtkes, 159). According to Robert of Gloucester (550) it was owing to Earl Gilbert's opposition to Leicester's measures that the great London parliament (14 Jan. 1265) was summoned. The quarrel was already notorious, and Simon openly charged Gloucester with protecting the marchers. According to one chronicler a reconciliation was now effected ; but at the best it was only momentary (Ann. Wav. 358 ; Wykes, 159 ; Robert of Gloucester, 152). A rumour went abroad that Leicester meditated shutting up Gilbert in prison. The young earl was required to find surety for his future conduct; a tournament that he had made arrangements for holding with young De Montfort at Dunstable was abruptly forbidden (17 Feb.), and Llewellyn was suffered to ravage his Welsh lands (Wykes, 159 ; Rymer, 450 ; Wav. Ann. 358). Indignant at such treatment, the earl fled to the marches.

      Besides the general complaint that Simon monopolised too much of the government, Gilbert complained that the forfeited lands were not fairly divided, that the king was led about at the beck of the Earl of Leicester, and that the prisoners made by himself and his men had been taken from them. Two charges against the Earl of Leicester are specially noteworthy : first, that the royal castles were kept in Leicester's hands, and garrisoned by French troops; secondly, that the provisions of Oxford were not properly carried out. These complaints reappear frequently in Gilbert's history, and seem in later years to have inspired his whole political conduct (Rishanger, Rolls Series, 82 ; Trivet, 203 ; Ann. Wig. 453 ; Lib. de Ant. Leg. 73).

      From a comparison of texts it would seem that Gilbert ned to the marches between 17 Feb. and 24 Feb. ( Wav. Ann. 358, with which cf. Rtxeb, 450) ; but the feud does not seem to have been recognised till he refused to appear at a tournament to be held at Northampton (13 April or 21 April), immediately after which (25 April) the king, Prince Edward, and Simon started for the marches (Dunstable, 238 ; Wykes, 161-2; Wav. 36l), and entered Gloucester, from which town they held a fifteen days' negotiation with Gilbert, who was then in the Forest of Dean. On 12 May the two earls were nominally once more at peace (Wav. 361-2 ; cf. Rymer, 455). It was probably between May 12 and 20 that Gilbert attempted to seize the king and Simon on their way to Hereford ; but the attempt failed, and there does not appear to have been open warfare till the escape of Prince Edward (26 May). At Ludlow tne prince and the young earl met ; the former took an oath that, if victorious, he would renew the 'old good laws,' and remove the aliens from the royal council and the custody of the royal castles. By 8 June Gilbert and Edward were both proclaimed rebels, and about the same time got possession of Gloucester (Pat. Rolls, 37a; Wav. 361-2 ; Lib. de Ant. Leg. 73 ; Rishanger, Camd. Soc. 43; Rymer, 456-7 ; Wykes, l64-5). In the ensuing campaign, Gloucester?s most brilliant opierations were; the destruction of the Bristol s ips (by which De Montfort had hoped to escape from Newport) and the Severn bridges, a movement which confined Leicester to the west of this river (Wykes, 160; Rishanger, Camd. Soc. 43). According to more than one chronicler Gloucester shared in Prince Edward?s victory at Kenilworth (1 Aug.), and he certainly, led the second division of the army at Evesham. His previous military experience with De Montfort seems to have had much to do with Edward?s method of marshalling his troops (Rishanger, Camd. Soc. 44-5 ; Dunst. Ann. 288). It was the attack of Gloucester that decided the day (John de Oxenedes, 229; Prothero, 342).

      A month later Gilbert was present at the Winchester parliament, when the rebel lords were disinherited of their estates (8 Sept.) Rishanger declares that it was mainly owing to the greed of Mortimer and Gloucester, who were ?gaping? after the forfeited lands, that so harsh.; sentence was pronounced, contrary 'to the wish of the king, who was inclined to mercy (Camd. Soc. 49, with which cf. 51). But such a charge is alien from his general character, and is probably merely an expression of the chronicler's personal hostility. The same charge is repeated with details when young Simon presented himself at Northampton (c. Christmas, 1265). Gloucester was then accused of being envious when the king gave his nephew the kiss of peace, and of being the great obstacle to his complete pardon: and all this, according to Rishanger, because he dreaded the vengeance young Simon would take for his father's death (Rishanger, Rolls Series, 32, and Camd. Soc. 51). Gloucester next year accompanied Prince Edward in his expedition against the Cinque Ports-a movement probably induced by the fact that it was to this neighbourhood that De Montfort had escaped-and, at the fall of Pevensey (c. 7 March 1266), saved the life of a rebel knight (whom Edward would have hanged) in the hopes of inducing others to surrender by such an act of mercy (War, 369). It is probable that Gloucester looked upon the younger Montforts as aliens. and demanded their extradition as part of the political programme which he had set himself to work out. Added to which he may have had something of a personal grudge (cf. Lib. de Ant. Leg. 44).

      About 24 June Henry laid siege to the disinherited barons at Kenilworth, and three months later Gilbert was appointed one of the twelve commissioners for settling the terms of surrender (Statutes of Realm, i. 12: Dunst. Ann. 242). Their decision was given 31 Oct., and from this moment Gloucester took the side of the vanquished. He probably hoped to secure more favourable terms than were actually given. So great was the enmity of the extreme party against him, that it is said Mortimer conspired to slay him (ib. 532, and before 12 Dec. Gilbert fearing for his life withdrew to his own estates (ib, with which cf. John de Oxen. 232; Walt. Heming. 327).

      Henry at once called the great lords to Oxford for Christmas, in the hopes of making peace between the two nobles. Gloucester was summoned to London for 5 Jan., but refused to come, being engaged, it was said, in raising forces on the Welsh borders for a war against Mortimer (Rishanger, Camd. Soc. 59). Before the St. Edmunds Parliament (20 Jan.) he sent to the king's messengers his demands, which ran on the old lines: 1. The removal of the aliens. 2. The fulfilment of the provisions of Oxford and the promises of Evesham. 3. The restitution of their lands to all the disinherited on payment of penalties assessed by jury in proportion to the offence. The earl disclaimed all intention of warring against the king or the prince (Richanger, Camd. Soc. 59; Dunst. Ann. 245). A sudden march from the Welsh borders made Gilbert master of London, to which town he was admitted (8 April) on showing letters patent from the king. Next day he laid siege to the papal legate in the Tower. On 12 April he was joined by D'Eyville and others of the disinherited lords from the north, whom, however, Gilbert would not admit into the city till after Easter (17 April 1267). He allowed no plundering among his followers, but countenanced the deposition of the great men of the city, and the tempprary institution of what a contemporary ndon chronicler calls a ?commune? of the ?homines minuti.? Henry at once came south with his army, rescued the legate, apparently by water, but, being unable to effect an entrance within the walls, encamped at Stratford. After several weeks a peace was concluded between the earl and the king, owing to the mediation of the king of the Romans (16 June). It is to Gilbert's credit that he not only secured liberal terms for himself and the 'disinherited,? but received the royal pardon for those citizens who had taken 'his side (Lib. de Ant. Leg. 90-3; Rishanger; John of Oxenedes, 233, &c.: Wykes, 205, &c.)

      Shortly afterwards the earl was reconciled to Prince Edward at Windsor (Lib. de Ant. Leg. 95), and 24 June 1268 they both took the cross at Northampton (Rishanger, Rolls Series. 59 ; Wykes, 218). Towards the end of next year Gloucester refused to attend a parliament) on the plea that Prince Edward was watching an opportunity of imprisoning him ; and the king of the Romans' intervention was once more required. By his decision (17 July 1270) the earl was to take ship for the Holy Land immediately after Prince Edward under in of forfeiting twenty thousand marks. Tlie prince sailed on 20 Aug., but Gloucester seems to have avoided both the expedition and the penalty (Wykes, 229-31, &c. ; Ann, Wint. 109). In January 1271 the earl was mainly instrumental in securing the restoration of all their estates to the 'disinherited' (ib. 110).

      On the death of Henry III Gloucester was foremost in declaring his fealty to Edward, in accordance with the oath he made to the dying king (16 Nov.) (Lib. de Ant. Leg. ii. 162, 156 ; Ann, Wint, 112). Next day (17 Nov.), in company with the Archbishop of York, he entered the city and proclaimed peace to all, both Jews and christians, thus securing, for the first time in English history, the acknowledgment of the accession of the eldest son of the king immediately on the death of his father. It is curious to find the earl once more supporting the claims of Walter Hervey, who had been elected mayor of London by the 'communitas,' against those of Philip le Tayllur, the candidate appointed by the city magnates. Here he seems again to be advocating the cause of the weaker citizens, as he had done in 1267, and so helping to sustain a popular movement, which appears to have originated in the times of Simon de Montfort. It was at last decided (18 Nov.) that Walter Hervey should take office after promising that he would not injure any of those who had opposed his election (Lib. de Ant. Leg. 149-63).

      It was about this time that Gilbert seems to have first contemplated a divorce from his first wife, Alice, to whom he had been married when a boy. She appears to have leaned rather to the king's party than to her husband's. In the early part of 1267 she sent from London news of her husband's descent on the city to the king (Dunst. Ann. 246). According to John de Oxenedes he was divorced from her at Norwich on 17 July 1271 (p. 239). But the transaction does not seem to have been completed till nearly twenty years later, as documents in Rymer, dated May 1283 and May 1286, speak of a papal dispensation as being still necessary before the second marriage with the Princess Joan can take place (Rymer, ii. 244, 299), and discuss the dowry of the discarded Alice. The second wedding took place on 30 April 1290; but the earl seems not to have been entirely reconciled to his new father-in-law even then, as he at once left Westminster for his castle of Tunbridge (Dunst. Ann. 368 ; Ann. Wig. 602 ; Green, ii. 330, with which cf. the 'abducta uxor' of ^7171. Oseneg, 326). In July he and his wife took the cross at the hands of Archbishop Peckam, and, if we may interpret the chronicler's words literally, actually started for the Holy Land (Cotton, 177-8).

      In 1276 Gilbert was summoned against Llewellyn of Wales (Rymer, ii. 73), with whom, though his ally in 1267, he had been engaged in disputes in the Westminster courts some five years previouslv (26 Oct. 1271) about Caerphilly Castle (Pat. Rolls, 43 b; Brut, 366). In 1278 he is found disputing -with the Bishop of Hereford as to the right of hunting in Malvern Hills (Ann. Wig. 476). In December he received a summons to take the field against Llewellyn (Rymer, ii. 76). Four years later he was serving with his soldiery near Lantilowhir, on which occasion (16 June) the king's nephew, William de Valence, was slain (Rishanger, Rolls Series, 100). Next year (1283) he was summoned to Shrewsbury, to assist in the trial of Llewellyn's brother David (Rymer, ii. 200, 247). With Rhys ap Meredith, prince of Ystrad Towy, against whom he led the English baronage, his relations seem to have been more ambiguous; so much so that in 1287 he was suspected of affording a shelter to this prince on his Irish estates, although he had been appointed (July) one of the two leaders of the English expedition against him (Wykes, 311 ; Rymer, ii. 342 ; cf. Rishanger, 144). Eight years later (1294-96) all his Welsh tenants rose up against the Earl of Gloucester, and drove him out of Wales with his wife. Rhys ap Morgan and Maddos appears to have profited by this opportunity ; and when Gilbert took steps for recovering his estates he found that his greater tenants were unwilling to serve under him. Finally the king was forced to come and take the rebellious vassals into his peace against the earl's will (Ann. Dunst, 387 ; Ann. Wig. 626).

      Gilbert incurred the king's displeasure by levying private war against the Earl of Norfolk, who in 1276 had got jpossession of Brecknock, which the Earl of Gloucester claimed as his own (Ann, Cambr, 366). About Ascension day 1291 both nobles were consigned to prison, and placed 'in misericordiÔ regis' for 1,000l. and 10,000l. respectively (Ann. Dunst, 370 ; Abbrev, Plac, 286). The same year he was present at Norham, where Edward decided the claims to the Scotch crown. He died on 7 Dec. 1296, leaving one son, Gilbert (1291-1314) [q.v.], and three daughters, Eleanor, Marret, and Elizabeth [q. v.] Eleanor mamed (1) Hugh le Deepenser, (2) William le Zouch of Mortimer; Margaret married (1) Piers Gaveston, (2) Hugh d'Audley, afterwards Earl of Gloucester; Elizabeth married (1) John de Burgh, earl of Ulster, (2) Theobald de Verdun, (3) Roger d'Amory (Ann. Wig. 524; Escheat Rolls, i. 271; cf. Knyghton, 2584, and Trokelowe, 86; Green, ii. 360, &c.; see Gilbert De Clare, tenth earl).

      Gilbert de Clare was the most powerful English noble of his day. Besides his immense estates in Wales and Ireland, he possessed lands in twenty-two English counties (Escheat Rolls, i. 131). In his early years he appears to have been very fickle in his political attachments, and want of loyalty to his leaders was strikingly exemplified in his conduct towards Simon de Montfort and Prince Edward. There was something chivalrous, however, in his attitude towards the disinherited barons, and in his care to secure the safety of his adherents among the London citizens. His position as leader of the baronage during the later years of his life is best illustrated by the events of 1288, when, on Edward's demand of a subsidy, he refused, as the spokesman of his fellow-magnates, to grant anything till the king's return (Wykes, iv. 316). The ?Chronicon de Lanercost? (p. 168) describes him as ?prudens in consiliis, strenuus in armis, et audacissimus in defensione sui juris;? and ascribes to him the famous story of the rusty sword, which is more commonly assigned to Earl Warenne. He was buried at Tewkesbury, where his picture, painted on glass, is still to be seen (Ann. Wig. 624; Green, ii. 343).

      [Annals of Margam, Tewkesbury, Winchester, Waverley, Burton, Dunstable, Wykes, Oseney and Worcester (Wigorn), in Luard's Annales Monastici, i. ii. iii. iv. (Rolls Series); Rishanger, ed. Ryley (Rolls Series) and Halliwell for Camden Society; Matthew Paris, ed. Luard (Rolls Series); John of Oxenedes, ed. Ellis (Rolls Series); Annales CambriŠ and Brut y Tywysogion, ed. Williams ab Ithel (Rolls Series); Liber de Antiquis Legibus, ed. Stapleton (Camd. Soc.); Rymer's F?dera, i. ii. ed. 1704, i. ed. 1816; Statutes of Realm, i. (Patent Rolls); Escheat Rolls; Trivet (Eng. Hist. Soc.); Walter of Hemingford (Eng. Hist. Soc.); Stubbs's Select Charters; Prothero's Simon de Montfort; and authorities cited above.]

      T. A. A. [6]
    Person ID I11022  Dickinson
    Last Modified 5 Dec 2017 

    Father Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Glouchester,   b. 4 Aug 1222, Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Jul 1262, Ashenfield Manor, Waltham, Kent Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 39 years) 
    Relationship Birth 
    Mother Matilda de Lacy, Countess of Gloucester and Hertford,   d. Abt 1289 
    Relationship Birth 
    Married Abt 1238 
    Family ID F3002  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Alix de Lusignan,   d. May 1290 
    Married Spring 1253 
    Divorced 16 May 1285 
    • Annulled.
    Children 
     1. Isabel de Clare,   b. 10 Mar 1263,   d. After 1322  (Age 59 years)  [Birth]
     2. Joan de Clare,   b. 1264,   d. After 1322  (Age 59 years)  [Birth]
    Last Modified 5 Dec 2017 
    Family ID F4494  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Joan of Acre, Countess of Gloucester and Hertford,   b. Spring 1272, Acre, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Apr 1307, Clare, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 35 years) 
    Married 30 Apr 1290  Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [7, 8, 9
    Children 
     1. Gilbert de Clare, 10th Earl of Clare, 7th of Herford, 8th of Glouchester,   b. 4 May 1291, Winchcombe, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Jun 1314, Bannockburn, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 23 years)  [Birth]
    +2. Eleanor de Clare,   b. Oct 1292,   d. 30 Jun 1337  (Age ~ 44 years)  [Birth]
    +3. Margaret de Clare, Countess of Cornwall and Gloucester ,   b. Abt 1293,   d. 9 Apr 1342  (Age ~ 49 years)  [Birth]
    +4. Elizabeth de Clare,   b. 16 Sep 1295, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Nov 1360  (Age 65 years)  [Birth]
    Last Modified 11 May 2015 
    Family ID F3085  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 2 Sep 1243 - Christchurch, Hampshire Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary - Battle of Lewes - 14 May 1264 - Lewes, East Sussex Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary - Battle of Evesham - 4 Aug 1265 - Evesham, Worcestershire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsPossessions - Caerphilly Castle - Apr 1268 - Caerphilly, South Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 30 Apr 1290 - Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 7 Dec 1295 - Monmouth Castle, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Sources 
    1. [S336463] Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, Charles Cawley, (Online: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy at http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/, 20XX), http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#GilbertHertford6died1295.

    2. [S336470] Wikipedia, (Online: https://en.wikipedia.org), "Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_7th_Earl_of_Gloucester.

    3. [S157] A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain, Marc Morris, (New York: Pegasus Books, 2015), 64-69.

    4. [S157] A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain, Marc Morris, (New York: Pegasus Books, 2015), 133-134.

    5. [S157] A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain, Marc Morris, (New York: Pegasus Books, 2015), 284.
      Month and year.

    6. [S336351] Dictionary of National Biography, 63 volumes, Sir Sidney Lee, ed., (New York: McMillan and Company, 1885-1900), Public Domain., vol. 10, 378-82 [Thomas Andrew Archer].

    7. [S336429] Britain's Royal Families: A Complete Genealogy, Alison Weir, (London: Vintage Books, 2008), 131.

    8. [S157] A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain, Marc Morris, (New York: Pegasus Books, 2015), 224.

    9. [S154] The Demon's Brood: A History of the Plantagenet Dynasty, Desmond Seward, (New York: Pegasus Books, 2014), 97-98.