Southern Anthology

Families on the Frontiers of the Old South

Eleanor d'Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine

Eleanor d'Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine[1, 2, 3]

Female Abt 1124 - 1204  (~ 80 years)

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  • Name Eleanor d'Aquitaine 
    Eleanor d'Aquitaine
    Eleanor d'Aquitaine
    Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Suffix Duchess of Aquitaine 
    Born Abt 1124  Château de Belin, Guienne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [4
    Gender Female 
    Political 1 Aug 1137 - 21 Mar 1152 
    Queen Consort of France 
    Military 1173 - 1174  Limoges, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    The War without Love 
    • In February 1273, Henry II pledged three castles to seal the marriage contract of five-year-old John to the daughter of Humber, Count of Maurienne. Henry the Young King found this the sort of paternal wire-pulling that, though crowned, kept him sidelined. Angry and frustrated, the Young King moved to sack his father. The King of France was all too happy to encourage his son-in-law when he came calling in Paris. Louis gathered a consortium of allies including Philip of Flanders, Matthew of Bolougne, and members of the Angevin household, the Queen and Richard and Geoffrey. But the Capetian war effort was half-hearted and disorganized and the Old King was practiced in the art of war, politics and especially travel. An invasion of England and investment of Rouen were frustrated by the Old King's peripatetics. By July of 1174 the rebellion had fizzled. Henry II was gracious with his recalcitrant sons but not so with his wife: Eleanor spent the better part of a decade in England, closely confined. [5]
    • "So why did Elanor decide that this was the moment to precipitate a family crisis and begin 'la guerre senz amur'? It may be that there is a clue to this in something else that happened at Limoges. The homage sworn by Raymond of Toulouse was a great triumph for Henry II, but did Eleanor see it in that light? As duchess of Aquitaine she had inherited the ducal claim to Toulouse, but at Limoges Raymond had not only done homage to the dukes of Aquitaine, he had also done homage to the Young King. Did this mean that Aquitaine was going to be permanently subordinated to the ruler of the Anglo-Norman realm? The possibility must have made Eleanor's ancestors turn in their graves. Nor can it have been pleasing to Poitevin nobles. One of them, Hugh of Chauvigny, is reported to have hated all Englishmen. The death of Earl Patrick of Salisbury was still an episode which aroused harsh feelings on both sides." [6]
    Political 25 Oct 1154 - 6 Jul 1189 
    Queen Consort of England 
    France, 1180
    France, 1180
    House Poitiers 
    Died 1 Apr 1204  Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [7, 8
    Buried Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Fontevraud Abbey
    Fontevraud Abbey
    Fontevraud Abbey
    Notes 
    • ELEANOR, ALIENOR, or ÆNOR, Duchess of Aquitaine, Queen of France and Queen Of England (1122?-1204), is said to have been born in 1122. Her father was William X, duke of Aquitaine; her mother, Ænor de Châtelleraut, died before her husband. Eleanor's grandfather, William IX, the famous troubadour and crusader, had married Philippa, daughter of William, count of Toulouse, and their son, William X, was thus able to bequeath a somewhat shadowy claim over this lordship to his daughter's second husband, Henry II of England (Geoffrey of Vigeois, pp. 304, 299; Chron. Malleacense, p. 403). Through the above-mentioned Philippa, whose mother was the daughter of William the Conqueror's brother, Robert, earl of Montaign, Eleanor was distantly related to her future husband Henry II (Rob. de Monte, p. 509).

      William X, duke of Aquitaine, died at Compostella on Good Friday 1137. Before starting on his pilgrimage he had made arrangements for the marriage of his eldest daughter Eleanor to Louis, afterwards Louis VII, eldest son of Louis VI, king of France. By his will, which is preserved in an old chronicle, he bequeathed Aquitaine and Poitou to his prospective son-in-law. The younger Louis assumed the inheritance at Limoges (29 June 1137), and a few days later, probably on Sunday, 4 July, the marriage was celebrated at Bordeaux in presence of the nobles of Gascony, Poitou, and Saintonge (Chron, ap. Bouquet, xii. 115-16; Chron. of Tours, p. 1153; Geoffrey of Vigeois, pp. 304-5; Suger, p. 62). By this alliance the whole of south-west Gaul, from the borders of Brittany and Anjou to the Pyrenees, was added to the domams of the new French king (Will, of Newb. p. 102), who his father about 1 Aug. 1137 (Will. of Jumièges, p. 585).

      On Easter aay 1146 Louis and Eleanor, moved by the eloquence of St. Bernard, took the cross and started on the crusade, after receiving the pope's blessing at St. Denys, on 8 June 1147 (Suger, pp. 126-7; Ono de Diogilo, 1205-10). The story that Eleanor raised a troop of armed ladies and rode at their head as an Amazonian queen (Strickland, pp. 298-9; Larrey, p. 59; for the origin of this myth, see Nicetas, De Manuele Comneno. p. 80, ed. Bekker, Bonn, 1835) seems to be as purely fabulous as the tales which relate her amours in the Holy Land with Saladin, who was at this time a mere boy of thirteen. It is, however, certain that during this expedition her character was compromised by an intrigue of some kind or other with her uncle, Raymond I, prince of Antioch. This may possibly be no more than the scandal attaching itself to a close intimacy with her kinsman, who was eager to divert the efforts of the crusading host to his own aggrandisement; nor does Suger's letter to the king, in which he commends him for concealing his anger against his wife till after their return to France, enumerate any definite charge. In the latter half of 1149 Eleanor joined her husband in Calabria, whence they returned to their own kingdom by way of Rome(Will, of Tyre, xiv. c. 27; Epp. Sugerii, pp. 518-19).

      For more than two years Eleanor continued to live with her husband, and in this period bore him a daughter, Alice, afterwards married to Theobald, count of Blois (Vita Ludov. vii. 126). In 1151 or 1152 they established order in Aquitaine, on the return from which expedition the question of divorce was raised, perhaps for the second time (Chron. of Tours, pp. 1015-16). A church council held at Beaugency under the presidency of Samson, archbishop of Rheims, dissolved the marriage on the plea of consanguinity (21 March 1152), and some contemporary historians declare this action to have been taken with the approval of St. Bernard and Pope Eugenius (Vita Ludov. p. 127; Richard OF Poitiers, p. 101). Although long before the twelfth century came to a close it was currently reported that Louis repudiated his wife for adultery, it seems impossible to admit that such a charge was ever proved against her. The proceedings may perhaps have been due to Louis' disappointment in not having a son to succeed him. If we may trust an early chronicle of the next century, there was no lack of princes ready to espouse the divorced queen. At Blois a nasty night voyage saved her from falling into the hands of Count Theobald; at Tours, whither she fled from Blois, she narrowly escaped being seized by Geoffrey, the brother of her future husband (Chron. of Tours, 1616; cf. Will. of Newburgh,i. 171, and Walter Map, De Nug. Cur, p. 226). There is nothing improbable in these tales, but they probably belong to the same class as Brompton*s legend of her intrigue with Henry II's father, Geoffrey, which Walter Map accepts, although Geoffrey seems to have died m 1152 (Brompton, pp. 1044-5; Hist. Gaufredi, p. 292; Hen. Hunt. p. 283). All, however, that is certain is that she made her way to Poitiers, whence she sent an embassy to Henry, who had just succeeded his father as Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy. Dazzled by the prospect of so brilliant an alliance, he accepted ner overtures and married her about Whitsuntide (Gervase of Cant. ii. 149; Rob. de Monte, p. 500).

      Louis, who had hoped that his daughters would inherit the principality of their mother, now made war upon the young duke. A fever soon brought this contest to a close, and next year (1153) Henry was able to invade England. In 1154 he became king of England, and was crowned with his wife (17 Dec.) by Archbishop Theobald (Gervase of Cant. ii. 147-8, 159-60; Rob. de Monte).

      Eleanor's second son, Henry, was born at London in March 1155, Matilda at London in 1156, Richard at Oxford in September 1157. Towards the end of 1158 she crossed over to Cherbourg, after Geoffrey's birth in September, to spend Christmas there with her husband. Eleanor was born at Falaise in 1161, Joan at Angers in October 1165, John in 1166 (Rob. de Monte, sub ann.)

      In 1159 Henry attacked Toulouse under shelter of his wife's claims; and sixteen years later these claims were to some extent admitted, when Raymond V did homage to the king and his two elder sons at Limoges in February 1173 (Roger of Hoveden,i. 217, ii. 47; Brompton, p. 1051). During the long years of the Becket controversy Eleanor does not appear prominently; but a letter from John of Salisbury warns the archbishop that he must not look to the queen for help (1165). Five years later she seems to have been privy to the whole course of events relating to the coronation of the young Henry, and indeed to have had the business of detaining the young wife at Caen while her eldest son was being crowned in England laid upon her (Epp. Joh. Sarieb, ap. Bouquet, xvi. 242,431.)

      The peculiar position in which Eleanor stood with regard to Aquitaine may have influenced Henry II when in 1168, after the revolt of the Counts of March and Aquitane , he left her in the disturbed district under the care of Count Patrick of Salisbury (Rob. de Monte, p. 517). Two years later it was at her intercession that the king invested his son Richard with the duchy (about August 1170) (Geoffrey of Vigeois, p. 318; Roger of Hoveden, ii. 5, 6). Her affection for her children induced her to abet them in the great rebellion of 1173, if indeed she was not, as some contemporary accounts assert, the prime mover of the revolt. Eleanor had prepared to follow her three elder sons in their flight, and had even put on man's attire to facilitate her escape, when she was seized by the king's orders and put under strict guard, from which she was not fully released till her husband's death sixteen years later (Gery. of Cant. i. 242; Rob. de Monte, p. 521). A letter is still preserved that must have been written about the spring of 1173, when she was already contemplating this step, in which the Archbishop of Rouen urges her to return to 'her lord and husband before things get worse,' and warns her that it is really herself and her sons that she is injuring by her conduct (Epp, Petri Bles. ap. Bouquet, xv. 630). For the next sixteen years the chroniclers are almost silent as regards the queen. Somewhere about Easter 1174 she was led into England along with her daughter-in-law. According to Geoffrey of Vigeois her place of confinement was Salisbury; another account makes it Winchester. Probably she was not treated with great severity, for though we find Henry negotiating with the papal legate (c. October 1175) about a divorce from his 'hated queen,' she was apparently still produced in public for occasions of ceremony. Thus she was present at the concord between Henry and his sons in December 1184; and in the following spring Richard restored Poitou to her at his fathers command. According to one writer she was released from prison in this year (1185) at the request of Baldwin, the newly elected archbishop of Canterbury. Possibly, too, the dying petition of the young king Henry (d. 11 June 1183), in which he entreated his father on behalf of his captive mother, may have softened the old king's heart; added to which, since the death of Rosamond (about 1176), he had perhaps no longer the same inducements to seek a divorce (Geoff, of Vig. p. 331; Rob. de Monte, p. 523; Gervase of Cant. i. 256; Roger of Hoveden, ii. 288, 304; De Morte &c, Henrici Jun. ap. Stevenson, Ralph of Coggeshall, pp. 267, 273).

      The death of her husband (6 July 1189) freed Eleanor even from the semblance of restraint. In the days that elapsed before the coronation of Richard it was her efforts that secured the recognition of her son in England and the peace of the country. She made a royal progress through the land; she released the county prisoners from the gaols; and received oaths in her son's name. In earlier days men had seen the fulfilment of Merlin's prophecies when the 'eagle of the broken treaty' urged her sons to their revolt against her husband; now they found a more generous application of the prophecy, and imagined that in thus preparing for the coronation of her third-born son the same eagle 'was rejoicing in her third nesting' (Rog. of Hoveden, iii. 4; Ralph de Dic. ii. 67; cf. Rich, of Poitiers, ap. Bouquet, xii. 420; Epp, Joh. Sarisb. ap. Bouquet, p. 534).

      In the spring of 1190 Eleanor accompanied her son and his betrothed bride, Alice of France, to Normandy. On 30 March 1191 she brought Richard's future wife, Berengaria of Navarre, to Sicily; and three days later started back home by way of Rome, where she had an interview with Pope Celestine III on the matter of Geoffrey's election to the see of York. The Christmas of this year she spent in Normandy at Bonneville. She reached Portsmouth 11 Feb. 1192 (Rich, of Devizes, p. 55). A little later in the same spring she prevented John from crossing to France, as she suspected he was meditating some treachery towards his brother. In the same spirit she exacted an oath of fealty from all the lords of the realm to the same king (Lent 1192). When the news of Richard's captivity arrived, she was the very soul of the resistance offered to the contemplated invasion of Philip and John. Her commands brought all the English, noble and ignoble, knights and rustics alike, to guard the south-eastern coast (Easter 1193). She assumed the custody of Wallingford Castle and Windsor from the doubtful fidelity of John, who had now returned to England (April). It was to her that Richard wrote his orders about the collection of his ransom, and it was with her seal that the money-bags were stamped for protection when it was raised. In December the king called her to his presence; at Mayence, on 2 Feb. 1194, she was present when the emperor displayed the fatal evidence of her youngest son's complicity in the plot against his brother; and lastly, it was into her keeping that the captive king was delivered two days later (Rog. of Hoveden, iii. 4, 5, 32, 95, 100, 179, &c.; Ralph de Dic.. ii. 67, &c.; Gervase of Cant. i. 515; Rich, of Devizes, p. 557).

      In the same year she attended the great council of Nottingham (30 March 1194), and on 17 April was present at Richard's solemn recoronation in St. Swithin's Church, Winchestor. In 1198 she was accused of being privy to the attempted escape of Philip, bishop of Beauvais, Philip Augustus's cousin (Rog. of Hoveden, iii. 231, iv. 40-1).

      It was owing to Eleanor's influence that Richard had consented to pardon his brother John; and on the death of this king (6 April 1199) the aged mother at once exerted herself to secure the succession of her youngest son. When the barons of Anjou declared for her grandson Arthur, she joined Richard's mercenary leader Marchadeus, and laid waste the district. Early in the next year, though now almost eighty years old, she started for Castile, to make arrangements for the marriage of Alfonso's daughter Blanche, her own grandchild, with Philip Augustus's son Louis, afterwards Louis VIII. On her return she spent Easter at Bordeaux (9 April), and soon alter, 'worn out with the toils of her journey and old age,' betook herself to the abbey of Fontevraud, which already sheltered the bodies of her husband and two of her children. From this seclusion she was called once more by the outbreak of war between John and Philip in 1202. She was staying at Mirabeau, with only a scanty guard, when her grandson Arthur, accompanied by Geoffrey de Lusignan and Hugh Brown, laid siege to the castle, and would have had to surrender had not the king, hearing of her position, made a night march to her assistance, and taken her assailants captive (about 30 July 1202). Two years later Eleanor died (1 April 1204), and was buried at Fontevraud (Will. of Newburgh, ii.424; Rog. of Hoveden, iii. 367, iv. 84, 89, 96, 107; Matt. Paris, ii. 488; Rigord, ap. Bouquet, xvii. 55; Ralph of Coggeshall, p. 135; Annals of Waverley, p. 256).

      Eleanor had two children by her first husband, Louis VII: Mary (d. 1198), who married Henry, count of Champagne; and Alice, who married Theobald, count of Blois. Her sons by Henry II have been mentioned above, except her first-born, William (1153-1156). Her daughters by Henry were Matilda (1156-1189), who married Henry of Saxony; Eleanor (1162-1214), who married Alfonso III of Castile; and Joan (1165-99), who married first William II of Sicily, and secondly Raymond of Toulouse.

      [Authorities quoted above. They are nearly all to be found in the great collections of Bouquet and Migne. William of Newburgh and the English historians are quoted from the Rolls Ser. edition; Geoffrey of Vigeois from Labbé, Bibliotheca MSS.; Robert de Monte from Perte, vol. vi. The Chronicle of Tours is printed in Martène and Dorand's Amplissima Collectio. Walter Map's De Nugis Curialium has been edited for the Camden Society by T. Wright. For Brompton see Twysden's Decem Scriptores. For the Historia Gaufredi in Marchegay's Comtes d'Anjou; Richard of Devizes for the English Historical Society.] [9]
    Person ID I10826  Dickinson
    Last Modified 24 Nov 2017 

    Father Guillaume X d'Aquitaine, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Poitou (VIII),   b. 1099,   d. 9 Apr 1137, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Relationship Birth 
    Mother Eleonore de Châtellerault, Dss of Aquitaine,   b. ca. 1100, Châtellerault, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. After Mar 1130, Talmont, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 30 years) 
    Relationship Birth 
    Family ID F3737  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Louis VII, King of the Franks,   b. 1120, Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Sep 1180, Saint-Pont, Allier Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 60 years) 
    Married 25 Jul 1137  Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [10, 11, 12, 13, 14
    Divorced 21 Mar 1152  Château de Beaugency, Beaugency, Loiret, Centre-Val de Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [15, 16, 17, 18
    • The marriage was annulled on grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. The synod of bishops convened at Beaugency Castle on 11 Mar 1152. The annulment was granted with papal approval on 21 March.
    Children 
    +1. Marie de France, Countess of Champagne,   b. 1145, Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Mar 1198  (Age 53 years)  [Birth]
    +2. Alix de France, Countess of Blois,   b. 1150, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. ca. 1197, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 47 years)  [Birth]
    Last Modified 23 Nov 2017 
    Family ID F2978  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Henry II, King of England,   b. 5 Mar 1133, Palais de Comtes du Maine, Le Mans, Sarthe, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Jul 1189, Chinon Castle, Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 56 years) 
    Married 18 May 1152  Poitiers Cathedral, Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [4, 19, 20
    Children 
     1. William of Poitiers, Comte de Poitiers,   b. 17 Aug 1153, Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Apr 1156, Wallingford Castle, Wallingford, Oxfordshire Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 2 years)  [Birth]
    +2. Henry the Young King, Duke of Normandy,   b. 28 Feb 1155, Bermondsey Palace, Bermondsey, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Jun 1183, Martel Castle, Martel, Lot, Occitanie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 28 years)  [Birth]
    +3. Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony,   b. Jun 1156, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Jun 1189, Brunswick, Lower Saxony, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 33 years)  [Birth]
     4. Richard I, King of England,   b. 8 Sep 1157, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Apr 1199, Châlus, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years)  [Birth]
    +5. Geoffrey II, Earl of Richmond,   b. 23 Sep 1158,   d. 19 Aug 1186, Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 27 years)  [Birth]
    +6. Eleanor of England, Queen consort of Castile,   b. Sep 1161, Domfront Castle, Domfront, Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 31 Oct 1214, Burgos, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 53 years)  [Birth]
    +7. Joan of England, Queen of Sicily,   b. Oct 1165, Château d'Angers, Angers, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Sep 1199, Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 33 years)  [Birth]
    +8. John I, King of England,   b. 24 Dec 1166, The Tower of London, Tower Hamlets, London, Greater London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Newark, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years)  [Birth]
    Last Modified 16 Jan 2018 
    Family ID F2977  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - Abt 1124 - Château de Belin, Guienne, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 25 Jul 1137 - Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDivorced - 21 Mar 1152 - Château de Beaugency, Beaugency, Loiret, Centre-Val de Loire, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 18 May 1152 - Poitiers Cathedral, Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary - The War without Love - 1173 - 1174 - Limoges, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 1 Apr 1204 - Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Sources 
    1. [S336463] Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, Charles Cawley, (Online: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy at http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/, 20XX), http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/AQUITAINE.htm#Eleonoredied1204.

    2. [S336466] Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, John Bell Henneman, Jr., Lawrence Earp, William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, (New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1995).

    3. [S336465] Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Alison Weir, (New York: Ballantine iBook, 2008).

    4. [S23] The Plantagenets: The Warrior Kings and Queens Who Made England, Dan Jones, (New York: Viking, 2012), 30.

    5. [S422] Richard I (English Monarchs Series), John Gillingham, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 41ff.

    6. [S422] Richard I (English Monarchs Series), John Gillingham, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 47.

    7. [S336465] Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Alison Weir, (New York: Ballantine iBook, 2008), 635.
      "On 1 April 1204,34 Eleanor 'passed from the world as a candle in the sconce goeth out when the wind striketh it.' She was eighty-two and her death went virtually unremarked in the chaos surrounding the collapse of the Angevin empire.'"

    8. [S421] The Greatest Knight: The Remarkable Life of William Marshal, the Power Behind Five English Thrones, Thomas Asbridge, (New York: HarperCollins, 2014), 280.

    9. [S336351] Dictionary of National Biography, 63 volumes, Sir Sidney Lee, ed., (New York: McMillan and Company, 1885-1900), Public Domain., vol. 17, 175-178.

    10. [S336429] Britain's Royal Families: A Complete Genealogy, Alison Weir, (London: Vintage Books, 2008), 60.

    11. [S23] The Plantagenets: The Warrior Kings and Queens Who Made England, Dan Jones, (New York: Viking, 2012), 31.

    12. [S420] The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land, Thomas Asbridge, (New York: HarperCollins, 2010), 206.

    13. [S421] The Greatest Knight: The Remarkable Life of William Marshal, the Power Behind Five English Thrones, Thomas Asbridge, (New York: HarperCollins, 2014), 75.

    14. [S422] Richard I (English Monarchs Series), John Gillingham, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 25-26.
      "They had been married in 1137 when her father, Duke William X of Aquitaine, had died suddenly, and without sons, while on pilgrimage to Compestella. Eleanor's uncle Raymond, count of Tripoli, was ruler of one of the crusader states and too far away either to help her or to threaten to take her inheritance for himself. It was a sensible alliance for a fifteen-year-old old heiress deprived of her father's or an uncle's protection. Moreover contemporaries believed that, as a husband, Louis VII gave her love as well as protection. But as time went by the marriage turned sour."

    15. [S336429] Britain's Royal Families: A Complete Genealogy, Alison Weir, (London: Vintage Books, 2008), 61.

    16. [S336465] Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Alison Weir, (New York: Ballantine iBook, 2008), 124.

    17. [S20] The Knight Who Saved England: William Marshal and the French Invasion, 1217, Richard Brooks, (Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2014), 42.
      Year only.

    18. [S421] The Greatest Knight: The Remarkable Life of William Marshal, the Power Behind Five English Thrones, Thomas Asbridge, (New York: HarperCollins, 2014), 76.

    19. [S436] Chroniques des Églises d'Anjou, Marchegay & Mabille, eds., (Paris: 1869).
      Chronicæ Sanct Albini Andegavensis

    20. [S336465] Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Alison Weir, (New York: Ballantine iBook, 2008), 127.