Southern Anthology

Families on the Frontiers of the Old South

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51 "Glendower, Owen" by Thomas Frederick Tout

GLENDOWER, OWEN (1359?-1416?), Welsh rebel, more accurately Owain ab Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyvrdwy or Glyndwr (Rawlinson MS. B. 464, f. 42; Owen and Blakeway, Shrewsbury, i. 181), was probably born in 1359; on 3 Sept. 1386 he was between twenty-seven and twenty-eight years old (Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, i. 254, ed. Nicolas). On his father's side he traced back his descent through the princes of Powys Vadog to Bleddyn ab Cynvyn. His father's name was Gruffydd Vychan, i.e. the Little, modernised into Vaughan (Gruffydd Llwyd in Pennant, Tour in Wales, i. 311, ed. 1778). This surname was doubtless to distinguish him from his father, Owain's grandfather, whose name was also Gruffydd, and who was the son of Madog, son of Gruffydd Vychan, son of Gruffydd of Bromfield [see Gruffydd ab Madog, d. 1269] (Bridges, Princes of South Wales, pp. 250?2). The lands of Glyndyvrdwy had long been in the family. Early in Edward II's time Gruffydd ab Madog (b. 1298) was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John L'Estrange of Knockin, near Oswestry (Rot. Parl. i. 306), and the lordships and manors of Glyndyvrdwy and Sycharth were entailed on this couple and their heirs (ib. iv. 440). Glyndyvrdwy was in Edeyrnion and a part of the old shire of Merioneth. It included the valley of the Dee between Corwen and Llangollen. Sycharth, then within the Welsh marches, is now part of the parish of Llansilin, on the borders of Shropshire and the modern county of Denbigh. Owain claimed to be descended from the old line of north Welsh princes, and thence from Cadwaladr Vendigaid and the fabulous Brutus (see Owain's letter in Adam of Usk, pp. 69?71). He also claimed descent from the old houses of Deheubarth, and, through his mother Helen, from Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (Leland, Itinerary, v. 44; Pennant, i. 302; Harl. MS. 807, f. 94). It is pretty clear, however, that Llewelyn's legitimate stock died out in his daughters. Owain also possessed in South Wales the manors of Yscoed and Gwynyoneth, but his main influence was in the north. He derived a revenue of three hundred marks a year from his lands, and was thus among the few Welsh gentlemen of large estate. He had in the north two great houses, of which the chief was at Sycharth, which, by his hospitality, became known as a ?sanctuary of bards.? The poet Iolo Goch [q. v.] has left a glowing description of the splendour of this house (text and translation in Y Cymmrodor, v. 264?73; and another translation in Pennant, i. 305). It was called Saghern by the English (Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 11). Owain had another house of only less importance at Glyndyvrdwy itself (ib. i. 12). Owain had a younger brother named Tudor.

It was afterwards believed that great prodigies attended Owain's birth, and contemporaries thought that he had magic help in his struggle against the English. The story, often told, that at the time of his birth the horses in his father's stables were found standing in blood, is really told of Edmund Mortimer in all the original authorities (?Annales Hen. IV? in Trokelowe, p. 349; Walsingham, Hist. Angl. ii. 254; Cont. Eulogium Historiarum, iii. 398; Monk of Evesham, p. 179; Holinshed).

Owain became a student of English law at Westminster, and was perhaps called to the bar (?juris apprenticius? Ann. Hen. IV, p. 333). He remained a student of ancient deeds. He subsequently became squire to the Earl of Arundel, who had large estates in North Wales and was lord of Dinas Bran, the great fortress overlooking Llangollen, not far from Owain's estates (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 388; Capgrave, De illustribus Henricis, p. 110). In 1385 he served in the Scottish campaign of Richard II (Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, i. 254). He was summoned as a witness in the famous suit of Scrope and Grosvenor, and on 3 Sept. 1386 gave evidence at Chester in favour of Robert Grosvenor's right to wear the arms azure a bend or (ib. i. 254).

Arundel was a strong partisan of the popular party, and Owain subsequently took service with Henry of Lancaster himself, afterwards Henry IV (?scutifer regi moderno,? and therefore not of Richard II, as is generally said; Ann. Hen. IV, p. 333; Walsingham, ii. 246). His connections were therefore thoroughly Lancastrian and constitutional. Yet Wales in general was strongly attached to King Richard, and when Henry IV on his accession made his son Henry prince of Wales, the French metrical chronicler prophesied that the new prince would not gain the lordship without force (Archæologia, xx. 204). Tumults became common from the time of Richard's deposition. Prince Henry's council, under Henry Percy, the famous ?Hotspur,? had little success in restoring order.

One of Owain's strongest neighbours was Reginald, lord Grey of Ruthin [q. v.] with whose house the king's tenants in Glyndyvrdwy had long been in conflict. A dispute was now caused by Owain's claim to some land in Grey's possession. It is said by the continuator of the ?Eulogium Historiarum? (whose dates are often wrong) that Owain journeyed to Westminster to complain before the Hilarytide parliament in 1401 of Grey's usurpation (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 388). But Owain was already in arms in 1400. If the story be true, it must refer to the parliament of October 1399, but there is no record of the transaction in the ?Rolls of Parliament.? The continuator tells us how the Bishop of St. Asaph, John Trevor, warned the parliament not to despise Owain. The lords replied that they did not care for the barefooted rogues, and Owain went home in a rage with his grievances unredressed.

Owain soon had another complaint. Grey had neglected to deliver a writ summoning Owain to the Scottish expedition, until it was so late that obedience was impossible. Grey then denounced him before the king as a traitor for not appearing (Monk of Evesham, p. 171). Owain now plundered and burnt Grey's estates, and cruelly murdered some of Grey's household (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 333). Grey was much occupied at the time with a quarrel with Gruffydd ab Davydd ab Gruffydd, ?the strengest thief in Wales.? The revolt spread. The rumours that King Richard was still alive kindled Welsh feeling for their deposed favourite (cf. Adam of Usk, p. 54). Owain, despite his Lancastrian connections, put himself at the head of the movement, which soon developed into a Welsh national rising against Saxon tyranny.

The rebels were from the first brilliantly successful. The clashing jurisdictions of the Prince of Wales and the marcher lords made united action among the English impossible. The castles were ill-equipped and undermanned, and, when not in Welsh hands, were in charge of Welsh deputies. The civil administration was almost entirely in native hands, and a large Welsh element had crept in even among the ?English towns.? Before long all North Wales was in revolt. Owain soon assumed the title of Prince of Wales, and gave himself the airs of a sovereign (Evesham, p. 171; Adam of Usk, p. 46). The Welsh scholars at Oxford and Cambridge left their books and joined in the rebellion. The Welsh labourers from England hurried off to Owain with whatever weapons they could seize (Rot. Parl. iii. 457). In Wales the farmers sold their cattle to buy arms (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 8). Secret meetings were held everywhere, and the bards wandered about as messengers of sedition. Many castles and ?English boroughs? fell into Owain's hands. The great border stronghold of Shrewsbury, with its negligent town-guard and large Welsh population, was hardly beyond the range of danger (F?dera, viii. 160).

Henry IV heard of the Welsh rising at Leicester on his way back from his expedition to Scotland. On 19 Sept. he issued from Northampton summonses to the levies of ten shires of the midlands and borders. He entered Wales a few days later, and wandered for a month throughout the north. He penetrated as far as Anglesey, where he drove out the Franciscan friars of Llanfaes, who, like their brethren in England, were keen partisans of King Richard, and therefore of Owain (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 388, but cf. Wylie, p. 147); but as the army began to suffer from want of provisions, and Owain kept obstinately in hiding, Henry had to return to England with a few captives. On 9 Nov. he was at Westminster, where he granted all Owain's forfeited estates to his brother, John Beaufort [q. v.] earl of Somerset.

Owain for some time hid himself with only seven companions (Adam of Usk, p. 46). His bard, Iolo Goch, lamented his disappearance in impassioned strains (the Welsh in Lloyd, Hist. of Powys Fadog, i. 220; English translation in Y Cymmrodor, iv. pt. ii. 230?2). But the rebels were soon as active as ever. In January parliament pressed hard for coercive laws. The king to a great extent accepted their proposals, but still aimed at conciliation, and on 10 March, at the petition of the Prince of Wales, issued a general pardon, from which Owain, himself, and the brothers Gwilym and Rhys, sons of Tudor, were the only exceptions. The commons of Carnarvon and Merioneth humbly tendered their thanks, and offered to pay the usual taxes. Yet with the return of spring the rebels were again active. Gwilym and Rhys seized Conway Castle on Good Friday, though on 28 May they had to give it up. On 30 May Percy won a battle near Cader Idris. He believed he had now subdued the three shires of Gwynedd, but, angry at being left to bear the expense, threw up his command. Before leaving Wales he entered into suspicious dealings with Owain.

Owain's movements during this time are very obscure. He was plainly keeping himself in the background until his agents had got all things ready. A curious letter addressed to his partisan, Henry Don, explains clearly enough his general plan of operations (it is printed in Owen and Blakeway's Shrewsbury, i. 181?2). In the spring of 1401 Owain suddenly appeared in South Wales, in the ?marches of Carmarthen,? driven there perhaps by Percy's activity in Gwynedd, or perhaps by the desire of extending the rising to the south. On 26 May the king received the news that Owain had held a great assembly of rebels in that district, ?with the purpose of invading England, and of destroying our English tongue? (Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii. 55). Henry at once hurried to Worcester to prepare for a second expedition into Wales, but, finding the accounts of it exaggerated, he abandoned the invasion to attend to pressing business in London. Owain at once hurried to Powys, where on one of the first days of June he was beaten by John Charlton. But the revolt broke out in fresh districts, and Henry Percy's retirement from the post of justice of Wales was followed by new disturbances. By the autumn all Gwynedd, Ceredigion, and Powys were actively adhering to Owain, and in fresh districts the wretched English townsmen saw their houses destroyed, or lost their lives. Welshpool, the stronghold of Edward Charlton [q. v.] was the special centre of these attacks.

In October the king and the Prince of Wales again hastily invaded Gwynedd, and ravaged the country for a month, proceeding first to Bangor and Carnarvon, and thence southwards through Meirionydd to Ceredigion, where the abbey of Strata Florida suffered the fate of Llanfaes (Usk, p. 67; see, however, for the chronological difficulties of this campaign, Henry IV). The best result to Henry was the temporary submission of Ceredigion, which deserted Owain on a promise of pardon from the king (Usk, p. 68). Owain again avoided a battle, but contrived to inflict no small injury on the English, and carried off the equipage of the Prince of Wales and other nobles to the recesses of Snowdon (ib. p. 67). On 2 Nov. Owain appeared with a great host before the walls of Carnarvon, but he was driven off by the garrison, and lost three hundred men.

Owain now affected moderation. His personal relations with Hotspur led to a fresh negotiation between him and Hotspur's father, Northumberland. With Henry's consent a messenger was sent by Northumberland, through Sir Edmund Mortimer, Hotspur's brother-in-law, to Owain, who in reply spoke unctuously of his affection for Northumberland, with whom he would rather treat than with any other lord. He expressed his desire for peace, and his readiness to meet the English lords in the marches, but for the danger caused by the resentment of the English for his supposed vow to destroy the English tongue (Ord. of the Privy Council, ii. 59?60). The council asked the king to name negotiators, and to lay down the basis of a treaty with Owain (ib. i. 175). Meanwhile Owain was writing letters and instructing messengers to the king of Scots and the lords of Ireland. These letters, preserved by Adam of Usk (pp. 69?71), contain a strange medley of bad history and prophecy, with a very practical grasp of military conditions. He wrote in French to his ?lord and cousin? of Scotland, claiming kinship on the ground of their common descent from the mythic Brutus, and begging him to assist the fulfilment of the prophecy by a loan of heavy ?men-at-arms.? He made similar applications in Latin to his ?well-beloved cousins of Ireland.? But his messengers were captured and hanged. A knight of Cardiganshire, named Davydd ab Ievan Goch, was also sent from France to Scotland on Owain's behalf, and taken at sea by English sailors.

During the winter Owain exercised jurisdiction as sovereign over the shires of Carnarvon and Merioneth (Usk, p. 69). On 30 Jan. 1402 he cruelly ravaged the lordship of Ruthin, and carried off a great spoil of cattle to Snowdon. He significantly spared the lordship of Denbigh and the other possessions of the Earl of March. A comet seemed ominous to the panic-stricken borderers (Walsingham, ii. 248). In Lent he again approached Ruthin, tempted Reginald Grey [q. v.] to a rash pursuit, and then, suddenly turning, carried off his enemy a prisoner into Snowdon (Evesham, p. 177). He now carried on his depredations more to the south, until Sir Edmund Mortimer, Hotspur's brother-in-law, and uncle to the Earl of March, gathered together against him nearly all the levies of Herefordshire, besides his Welsh tenants of Melenydd. Mortimer attacked Owain with a small following posted on a hill near Pilleth, in the modern Radnorshire, on 22 June. The Welshmen from Melenydd turned traitors and joined Owain. The Herefordshire men were defeated, with a loss variously given as two hundred in Evesham, p. 178; four hundred in ?Chron. Giles,? p. 27; more than a hundred in Walshingham, ii. 250; eleven hundred in ?Annals,? p. 341; and eight thousand in Usk, p. 75. The corpses of the slain were disgustingly mutilated by the Welshwomen (Ann. p. 341; cf. Walsingham, ii. 250). Mortimer was taken prisoner and conducted into Snowdon, but it was already rumoured that he was not an unwilling captive (Ann. u. s.), and he was treated from the first with the respect due to a possible king of England.

A third royal expedition was now undertaken. Three great armies invaded Wales from different points in the early part of September; but the elaborate plan to shut up Owain from different sides proved a signal failure. Owain found new hiding-places. The hundred thousand men suffered grievously from the cold and constant storms. The English ravaged the land and took a great spoil of cattle; but within three weeks they had returned home beaten, of course by magic, and believing that Owain could make himself invisible at will. Reginald Grey had now to purchase his ransom at a ruinous cost. Edmund Mortimer about the end of November married Owain's daughter and formed an alliance with his conqueror. On 13 Dec. he was back in his own lord- ship of Melenydd, and proclaiming that Owain's object was ?if King Richard be alive to restore him to his crown, and if not that my honoured nephew (the Earl of March), who is the right heir to the crown, shall be king of England, and that the said Owain will assert his right in Wales? (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 24?5).

Owain was now closely besieging the few remaining castles which still held out for King Henry. In April and May he gathered a great host together, and boasted that he would no longer shrink from battle if the English resisted his aggressions (ib. i. 11). But already in March the Prince of Wales had been appointed his father's lieutenant in Wales and the marches (F?dera, viii. 291). About May, Prince Henry marched into the rebels' country, but was, as usual, avoided by Owain. He burnt, however, Sycharth, Owain's chief residence, and afterwards burnt Glyndyvrdwy as well, completing his destructive foray by the devastation of the whole cymmwd of Edeyrnion and parts of Powys (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 10?13; Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii. 61?2. Mr. Wylie is plainly right in assigning Henry's report of 15 May to this year and not to 1402, as Ellis and Nicolas thought). The prince eagerly clamoured for men and money to relieve the hard-pressed garrisons of Harlech and Aberystwith (Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii. 63).

Owain now turned his attention to South Wales, the marches of which had hitherto been quite free from his inroads. The defection of Edmund Mortimer was followed by the rising of the marcher lordships included in the modern Radnorshire and Breconshire. The rebels besieged Brecon, but were forced to raise the siege by the sheriff of Herefordshire on Sunday 1 July. Owain now for the first time went south of Cardiganshire. On 2 July his arrival in the vale of Towy was followed by a general rising, even in the plain country, and the siege of Dynevor Castle, near Llandilo, by the insurgents. On 3 July Owain appeared at Llandovery, captured the castle, and encamped his host there and at Llandilo for the night. Next day it was believed that he was marching towards Brecon, but he sent only a part of his forces thither, where on 7 July (Saturday) they renewed the siege. He now received oaths of fealty from all Carmarthenshire (much smaller then than the present county), from the Welsh subjects of the marcher lordships of Kidwelly, Carnwallon, and Ys Kennin. He slept on the night of the 4th at Drysllwyn between Llandilo and Carmarthen. On the 5th he was before the gates of the capital of South Wales. On Friday 6 July he took and burnt Carmarthen town, and received the submission of the castle. He next proposed to march to Kidwelly, being safe of the adhesion of the districts of Kidwelly, Gower, and Glamorgan. He sent for a seer, Hopcyn ab Thomas of Gower, to speak with him under a truce at Carmarthen, and begged for an oracle. The seer replied that Owain would be taken in a brief time between Carmarthen and Gower, under a black banner. Thus deterred by superstition from his eastward advance, Owain gladly turned westward on the news that the lord of Carew had assembled against him the Englishry of the Pembrokeshire palatinate. On Monday 9 July Owain lodged at St. Clears, a little town ten miles west of Carmarthen, with 8,240 spears, and ravaged all the surrounding country. But he still shirked a pitched battle. All Tuesday was occupied by negotiations. That night Owain slept at the little port of Laugharne, three miles south of St. Clears. But the negotiations led to nothing, and Owain resolved to retreat to the hills to the northward. He sent seven hundred men to search the ways, and on Thursday 12 July the exploring party fell in with Lord Carew's men, and were all slain. This led Owain to retire to Carmarthen. The exceptional minuteness with which the movements of Owain can be traced during these ten days is due to accidental preservation of the letters of the panic-stricken keepers of the English castles, which have been printed in Ellis's ?Original Letters,? 2nd ser. (i. 13?23) and Hingeston's ?Royal Letters? (pp. 138?152). All South Wales had now joined the north, for the storm at last broke in Morganwg and Gwent. Usk, Caerleon, and Newport fell into Owain's hands (Adam of Usk, p. 75).

The Percies now suddenly broke into rebellion against Henry IV, having previously established relations with Owain (Hardyng, Chronicle, p. 353, ed. 1812). Owain must still have been in the south when they were in full march for Shrewsbury, hoping that he would join them (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 361). Many Welshmen now joined their ranks, but when, on 21 July, the battle of Shrewsbury crushed for a time the rebellion, Owain had not been able to arrive, or possibly, as one chronicler suggests, feared to put himself too much in the power of his allies (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 396; cf. Tyler, Henry V, i. 164?9, 385?93). But after the battle he ravaged Herefordshire and Shropshire, paying scanty regard to the informal truces which the terror-stricken borderers had sought to conclude with him (Royal Letters, p. 155; Ord. of the Privy Council, ii. 77). He even crossed the Severn, and returned home to his mountains laden with booty (Adam of Usk, p. 82).

About the middle of September Henry IV marched from Hereford on his fourth expedition against Owain, and reached Carmarthen on 24 Sept. He found no enemy, and all he could do was to revictual and strengthen the castles and walled towns. But it was hard to get garrisons to stay in these remote and dangerous posts (Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 287), and after the king's withdrawal things became much what they had been before, except that Owain never quite got such a hold over the south as in the summer of 1403. The king had hardly left the country when a French and Breton fleet appeared in Carmarthen Bay, and spread a new panic in Kidwelly (Royal Letters, p. 162), but they were able to effect nothing against the new strength of the castles, and marched north to Gwynedd. In January 1404 Owain began with their aid his winter attack on Carnarvon, having now ?engines, sows, and ladders of great length,? and only a garrison of twenty-eight to hold the huge fortress against him; but he failed here also, though during the spring Harlech, with its garrison reduced to five English and sixteen Welsh, agreed to surrender to him on a certain day (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 38). Early in 1404 Owain was again in the south and captured Cardiff, the capital of the Glamorgan palatinate, burning the whole town, except the street in which his allies the Franciscans had their convent. But he seized the books and chalices which the friars had deposited for safety in the castle, and on their remonstrating replied: ?Why did you put your goods in the castle? If you had kept them at home, they would have been safe? (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 401).

The year 1404 marks the highest point of Owain's power. On 10 May, ?in the fourth year of his reign as prince,? Owain issued from Dolgelly letters patent in sovereign style, ?as prince of Wales by the Grace of God,? appointing ?Master Griffith Young, Doctor of Decretals, our chancellor,? and John Hanmer, his own brother-in-law, his special ambassadors to conclude a perpetual or temporary league with the French (F?dera, viii. 356). The death of Philip of Burgundy had just brought Louis of Orleans into power, so that the enemies of Lancaster were strongly in the ascendant. The ambassadors were splendidly entertained, the French thinking that Hanmer was Owain's brother (?Religieux de Saint-Denys,? iii. 164, in Collection des Documents Inédits). King Charles received them in person, and, learning from Hanmer that Owain loved arms above all other things, sent him a present of a gilded helmet, cuirass, and sword (Religieux de Saint-Denys; cf. Juvenal des Ursins, p. 421, in Panthéon Littéraire). Jacques de Bourbon, count of La Marche, was appointed to treat with them, and on 14 July a treaty of alliance was solemnly concluded at Paris between Charles and the envoys of the ?illustrious and most dread prince of Wales? against their common foe, ?Henry of Lancaster? (F?dera, viii. 365?8). A list of Welsh harbours was sent by Owain to aid the French in their landing, and on 12 Jan. 1405 he ratified the treaty in his castle of Aberystwith, now at last captured from the English. But the expedition sent to help him under the Count of La Marche proved a disgraceful failure.

Owain had never spared churches or churchmen in his forays, and had burnt to the ground the cathedrals of St. Asaph and Bangor, and reduced to beggary the highborn nuns of Usk (Adam of Usk, p. 90). But, as a necessary result of this French alliance, he now recognised the French pope, Benedict XIII, who reigned at Avignon, hoping thus to free Wales from even ecclesiastical subjection to the schismatic English, who adhered to the Roman pontiff, and perhaps also to restore the fabled archbishopric of St. David's (Pauli, Geschichte von England, v. 33). Bishop Young of Bangor, a faithful partisan of Henry, had not dared to show his face in his diocese since the outbreak of the rebellion, and was now translated to Rochester. At Owain's request a Lewis or Llewelyn Bifort was ?provided? with Young's bishopric and apparently consecrated by the Avignon pope. The poets boasted that ?Rome is Owain's friend secure,? and that Owain is ?well begirt with arms of Rome? (Y Cymmrodor, iv. 230, vi. 99). Bifort long remained one of Owain's most trusted partisans (Haddan and Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, i. 668?9). In 1404 John Trevor, bishop of St. Asaph, deserted Henry for Owain, though he had received livings in commendam to compensate for the losses he suffered from Owain's depredations. The Cistercian abbot of Strata Florida and the whole Franciscan order had long been Owain's active partisans. Crusading zeal against schismatics henceforth inflamed the patriotism of the Welsh.

Owain now aspired to reign over an organised state in a regular way, with his chancellor, secretaries, notaries, envoys, letters patent and close. His great and privy seals, well and artistically wrought, are figured from a French impression in ?Archæologia,? xxv. 616?19; Tyler's ?Henry of Monmouth,? i. 251, ii. frontispiece; and the ?Archæologia Cambrensis,? new ser. ii. 121. They represent him as an old-looking man with a forked beard. Owain now summoned a Welsh parliament to Harlech or Machynlleth, consisting of ?four of the most sufficient persons of every cymmwd under his obedience? (Adam of Usk, p. 83; Adam of Usk, 2nd ser. i. 43). The English watched with much anxiety the proceedings of his parliament, though Adam of Usk made merry over its absurdity. But no record of its acts has come down to us. If there is any truth in the story of Hywel Sele (Pennant, i. 324), it shows that Owain was not without his difficulties in dealing with his disorderly subjects.

So strong was Owain now, that no general expedition was attempted against him this year, though it was feared he would invade the marches (Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 223). Prince Henry defended the southern border, but Shropshire made a truce with Owain, and Edward Charlton, whose Powys tenants had mostly gone over, by similar means protected his town of Welshpool.

Early in 1405 Owain's forces were more insolent and violent than ever (ib. i. 246). It seems to have been now, if ever, that Owain, Mortimer, and Northumberland signed the famous tripartite treaty for dividing England, ?to fulfil the prophecy? which gave Owain as his share all Wales and the lands west of a line drawn from the Mersey to the source of the Trent and thence to the Severn, at a point just north of Worcester, after which it followed the Severn to its mouth (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 27?8, from Sloane MS. 1776, f. 42 b; Chron. Giles, p. 39; Hall, p. 28, whose account, followed by Shakespeare, is very inaccurate; Tyler, Henry V, i. 150). Yet in March Owain suffered two damaging defeats from Prince Henry in Gwent, in one of which his son Gruffydd was taken prisoner. Later in the year his ?chancellor? and John Hanmer were also captured (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 399; Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 402; Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 248?50). All were sent to the Tower. Archbishop Scrope's rising for a time called away King Henry, and in July the long-expected French forces landed in Milford Haven, under the Marshal de Rieux and the Lord of Hugueville (F?dera, viii. 406?7; Monstrelet, liv. i. ch. xv.). The French urged Owain to besiege Carmarthen, which soon fell for the second time into rebel hands, the defenders receiving Owain's letters patent allowing them to go wherever they liked (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 415; Wals. ii. 272). But the English ships were active, reinforcements were cut off, and before long knights and squires went back to France, leaving only light-armed troops and crossbowmen (Religieux de Saint-Denys, iii. 328). In September Henry IV was at Hereford, preparing for a fresh invasion of Wales. He prevented Lady Despenser escaping to her Glamorganshire tenantry, and perhaps joining Owain (Wals. Ypodigma Neustriæ, p. 412). He relieved the long-beleaguered castle of Coyty in Glamorgan (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 408). But after losing transport and treasure in sudden floods, he was forced to go back to Worcester, having accomplished nothing (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 414; Wals. ii. 271). On 14 Nov. Francis de Court, lord of the Pembroke palatinate, bought a truce from Owain for 200l. (Fenton, Pembrokeshire, App. pp. 43?4).

Henry IV's worst misfortunes were now over, and Owain's influence was henceforward on the wane. In 1406 Prince Henry received power to restore rebel Welshmen to favour through fines and redemptions (F?dera, viii. 436?7). On 23 April the Welsh were severely beaten, and a son of Owain slain (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 418; Wals. ii. 273). Northumberland and Bardolf now took refuge with Owain, and fresh ships were sent from France, but only a few of them reached Wales safely. In 1407 Northumberland and Bardolf left Wales for Scotland, taking Owain's two bishops with them, their motive for leaving Wales being ?fear of King Henry? (Liber Pluscardensis, i. 348). In the same year Edward Charlton's tenants returned to the allegiance of their lord, and received charters of pardon for their defection (Montgomeryshire Collections, iv. 325?344, Powysland Club). In the summer Prince Henry captured Aberystwith, but Owain won it back by stratagem in the autumn (Wals.. ii. 277). It was soon, however, besieged again, and, Owain failing to relieve it, it surrendered to the prince on 1 Nov. (F?dera, viii. 419 (misdated), 497?9).

The ruin of Owain's efforts was soon assured. In 1408 Northumberland met his final defeat, and Lewis, bishop of Bangor, who was with him, was taken prisoner (Wals. ii. 278). The south now seems to have been entirely reconquered, and Henry appointed officers in such nests of rebellion as Northern Cardiganshire (F?dera, viii. 547). Yet Owain still held out bravely in the north, and pressed the northern marchers so hard that they made private truces with him, which the king called upon them to repudiate (ib. viii. 611). In 1411 large English forces were still kept in Wales to supplement the resources of the local lords (Ord. of the Privy Council, ii. 18). But on 21 Dec. 1411 the king, at the request of parliament, issued a pardon to all his subjects except Owain and the impostor Thomas of Trumpington. Owain still, however, avoided capture. In the summer of 1412 he was again in South Wales, and David Gam [q. v.] could only be released from his clutches by a large ransom and a formal treaty (F?dera, viii. 753). But the Welsh now seldom rose in arms (Tyler, i. 243, from Pells Rolls), and none took the trouble to hunt Owain out of his lairs.

The accession of Henry V was followed by the issue of a general pardon, 9 April 1413, from which Owain was no longer excepted. In June 1413 his wife, his daughter, Lady Mortimer, and other children and grandchildren fell into the king's hands (ib. i. 245). But the old hero still scorned to surrender. At last on 5 July 1415 Sir Gilbert Talbot was appointed to treat with Owain, and admit him to the king's grace and obedience (F?dera, ix. 283). On 24 Feb. 1416 Talbot had fresh powers to deal with Owain's son Maredudd (ib. ix. 330). It is clear that Owain was then still alive, but this is the last that is heard of him. The English of a later generation believed that he died of sheer starvation among the mountains (Holinshed, iii. 536; Mirrour for Magistrates). Tradition speaks of his haunting the homes of his sons-in-law at Scudamore and Monington, and being buried in Monington churchyard (Pennant, i. 368). When Henry V sailed to France it was still necessary to station large bodies of troops at Cymmer and Strata Florida. Lewis Glyn Cothi's story of the sixty-two female pensioners entertained by Owain in his old age suggests that he died in peace (Gwaith, p. 401).

Owain's wife was Margaret, daughter of Sir David Hanmer of Flintshire, a justice under Richard II (Pennant, i. 307). She was, says Iolo Goch,

The best of wives.
Eminent woman of a knightly family,
Her children come in pairs,
A beautiful nest of chieftains.

Owain also had a numerous illegitimate offspring, whose genealogy is given, not perhaps on much authority, in Lloyd's ?Hist. of Powys Fadog,? i. 216?17, from Harl. MS. 2299. Of his sons, one, Gruffydd, was captured by the English in 1405, and was still in prison in 1411 (Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 304; Tyler, i. 245). Another was slain in 1406. A third, Maredudd, is noted as living in 1421 (Notes and Queries, 5th ser. i. 234), but he died a few years later. One daughter (Catharine) married Edmund Mortimer, another John Hanmer, her cousin (ib. i. 234). In 1433 the direct line of Owain was represented by his daughter Alice, wife of Sir John Scudamore of Ewyas, who, in consequence of a parliamentary decision, in 1431, that Owain's attainder was not to affect his heirs to entailed lands, claimed Glyndyvrdwy and Sycharth from the Earl of Somerset, then a prisoner in France (Rot. Parl. iv. 377, 440). Another daughter, Margaret, is vaguely mentioned as wife of a Herefordshire gentleman named Monington. Lewis Glyn Cothi, a bard of the next generation, addressed poems to and wrote an elegy on another daughter, Gwenllian, wife of Philip ab Rhys of Cenarth, near St. Harmon's in the modern Radnorshire (Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi, pp. 392?6, 400?2).

[The notices of Owain in the chronicles are scanty, inexact, and confusing; the most important references are in Adam of Usk, ed. Thompson; Annals of Henry IV, published with Trokelowe in the Rolls Ser.; the Monk of Evesham's Hist. Ricardi Secundi, ed. Hearne; Walsingham's Hist. Anglicana, vol. ii., and Ypodigma Neustriæ, both in Rolls Ser.; the continuation of the Eulogium Historiarum, also in Rolls Ser.; and for French relations the Chronique du Religieux de Saint-Denys in the Collection des Documents Inédits. More copious and clearer are the documentary authorities, of which the chief in print are Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 1?43; Hingeston's Royal and Historical Letters of the Reign of Henry IV, pp. 35, 69?72, 136?64; Nicolas's Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, vols. i. ii.; Rymer's F?dera, vols. viii. ix., original edit.; and Rolls of Parliament, vol. iii. There are no Welsh chronicles, but some particulars can be gleaned from the bards, particularly Iolo Goch, Gruffydd Llwyd, and Lewis Glyn Cothi. Of modern accounts, the most lengthy from the Welsh point of view are the life in Pennant's Tour in Wales, i. 302?69 (ed. 1778), and Thomas's Memoirs of Owen Glendower. Neither is critical. Nothing practically is added to them in Morgan's Historical and Traditionary Notices of Owain Glyndwr in Archæologia Cambrensis, new ser. ii. 24?41, 113?122, or in the recently published account in Laws's Little England beyond Wales. The best modern accounts are in Pauli's Geschichte von England, vol. v.; Tyler's careful and complete Hist. of Henry V, vol. i.; and, so far as it extends, Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV, 1399?1404, which is, despite some errors in the Welsh details, by far the fullest and most satisfactory.]

T. F. T.
 
Glyndŵr, Owain Lord of Glyndŵr (I17674)
 
52 "He had asked for assistance against the Turks, but he had not bargained upon he united strength of Europe gathering at his gates; he could never be sure whether these warriors aspired to Jerusalem so much as Constantinople, nor whether they would restore to his Empire any formely Byzantine territory they might take from the Turks. He offered the Crusaders provisions, subsidies, transport, military aid, and, for the leaders, handsome bribes; in return he asked that the nobles should swear allegiance to him as their feudal sovereign; any lands taken by them were to be held in fealty to him. The nobles, softened by silver, swore." Komnenos, Alexios I Byzantine Emperor (I19336)
 
53 "He left on crusade in [late 1185], was taken prisoner at the battle of Hittin 4 Jul 1187, ransomed by the Templars but died in Palestine or on his way back."  Mowbray, Roger de (I12652)
 
54 "He married secondly, in 1582, Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Sydenham of Luxborough co. Somerset, cousin of the aforesaid Sir John Sydenham, by Ann Sydenham sister of the said Sir John, by whom he had issue: 1, Dorothy; 2, Elizabeth; 3, Frances; 4, Eobert (afterwards Sir Eobert Poyntz son and heir); 5, Hugh; 6, Nicholas; and 7, John. Dame Elizabeth died in childbed, and was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster, 7th December 1595."
 
Family F3208
 
55 "Her existence is questionable and it is possible that she was in fact the same person as Isabel née Zaïda, shown below as King Alfonso's fifth wife. The question of the separate existence of King Alfonso VI's fourth wife would be resolved if we knew there had been two different memorials to 'Queen Elisabeth' in the Royal Pantheon, but it appears that a record of these memorials no longer exists." Family F4682
 
56 "Here in Mobile, hardly more than an hour's drive from the site of Fort Mims, lives the great-great-granddaughter of Red Eagle, a princess of the Royal Family of the Wind and daughter of the conquering Muscogees, who welded all tribes in this section into the far-flung Creek nation. ...

Her name is Miss Eunice Weatherford. With her mother she lives in a shotgun bungalow at 1916 Old Government Street. ...

In her late twenties, dark-haired, dark-eyed and fair ... she has 60 (babies) to look after. ... They are babies that were born in the charity ward of the Mobile City Hospital.

An unemployed nurse, she is now employed by the Works Progress Administration."

Mobile Press-Register, 17 May 1936 
Weatherford, Eunice Brown (I6207)
 
57 "Here lieth Sir William Huddiffeild, knight, Attorney-general to King Edward IV, and of the Council to King Henry VII, and Justice of Oyer and Determiner; which died the l0th day of March, in the year of our Lord, 1499. On whose soul Jesus have mercy, Amen. Honor Deo et Gloria"  Huddesfield of Shillingford, William (I6327)
 
58 "His early education was limited to the knowledge which could be gained at the public schools, then of inferior quality, but was supplemented by reading and study in later years. Brought up on his father's farm, he early acquired habits of industry, economy and temperance, which remained with him through life, and doubtless were responsible for much of the success which he attained. He devoted his life to farming, by which he acquired a handsome property, much of which was donated to benevolent objects. He united with the First church in 1816; in 1824, he was one of the founders of the church in South Amherst, contributing liberally to its support during his life, and at his death bequeathing it funds with which the parsonage now in use was purchased. He was a regular attendant at town-meetings, seldom taking part in the discussions, but when he did speak his words bore with them the weight of character and wisdom. He served the town as selectman and, in 1828, as representative to the General Court. In 1812, he received a commission as lieutenant, and went with a company raised in this part of the state to Boston, but was not called into active service. From this time he was known as 'Lieutenant' Dickinson. He was married, April 27, 1809, to Lois Dickinson of Amherst; having no children, he devoted, in later years, the income of his large property to charitable and benevolent objects. He gave generously to Amherst Academy, Amherst College and Mount Holyoke Seminary. The expenses of the 'Nineveh Gallery' at Amherst College were borne by him; in his will he provided for a perpetual scholarship at the college, which bears his name."  Dickinson, Enos (I21703)
 
59 "I would not marry William E. Woodruff if every hair on his head were gold and strung with pearls!" Miss Jane Georgine Woodruff, recalling her mother's early appraisal of her father. Family F3373
 
60 "In 1109, says Orderic Vitalis, Elias remarried to Agnes, the daughter of William of Poitou and relict of Alfonso VI of Castile. However, it seems likely that Orderic confused two different wives of Alfonso, and that it was the latter's widow, the Frenchwoman Beatrice, known to have returned to her homeland on Alfonso's death, whom Elias married. She died the following year, however." Family F5973
 
61 "In 1183 Reynald took a flotilla on a looting expedition along the eastern coast of the Red Sea and into the Hijaz- the most holy province of Arabia- inciting rumors that he intended to invade Mecca and Medina and steal the body of Muhammad. Saladin never forgave him for this insolence." Châtillon, Renaud de Prince of Antioch (I19194)
 
62 "In 1399, when Bolingbroke staged his successful coup, the rightful heir to the throne of England was Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, a child of nearly eight. Edmund was the great-grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III."

 
Mortimer, Edmund 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster (I13064)
 
63 "In June, the count of Holland met with an unfortunate accident - English involvement cannot be entirely ruled out...." of Holland, Floris V Count of Holland (I14746)
 
64 "In Memory of Margaret P. Bowie, born in Abbeville S. C. the 13th of July 1777 and died in Dallas County the-th Dec. 1830. She was daughter of Gen. Andrew & Rebecca Pickins, who was Rebecca Calhoun of S.C. From the example of pious parents her mind became early with the principle of Christian religion which she adored, and zealously followed through the remainder of her life. Filled with charity and the most extended benevolence worked her path through Life, she was an affectionate wife a gentle mother and a generous friend. In none were there virtues more conspicuous. Her health had been delicate for more than 20 years and her last sufferings were greatly and she bore all With truly Christian meekness, looking forward to that crown of glory Promised to the humble followers of the Lamb, and died in the full triumph of faith, a husband and only daughter deplore their loss, and raised this final monument to her dear memory." Pickens, Margaret (I15282)
 
65 "In the 1140s the papacy and Byzantium were directly threatened by Roger's expansionist policies and therefore looked to their mutual ally, Germany, to counter the Sicilian's aggression. Conrad's decision to join the crusade threatened to disrupt this web of interdependence, exposing Rome and Constantinople to attache. Matters were complicated further by Louis Vii's relatively amiable relations with King Roger, a fact which unsettled Eugenius III and made the Greeks wary of a Sicilian-French invasion plot." Sicily, Roger II of King of Sicily (I19400)
 
66 "In the last few days [following the assassination] events had moved with bewildering speed. From [king of England] Richard's point of view, the outcome of it all was that, for the first time, he had all the forces of the kingdom at his disposal. If he had wished to put Henry on the throne he would have to get rid of Conrad and placate Guy - which had happened. Either he had reacted in a remarkably sure-footed way to the twists and turns of events, or some of them had been foreseen and, at the least, contingency plans had been laid. This surely applies to the decisions to recognize Conrad as king of Jerusalem and Guy as lord of Cyprus. Not surprisingly the Old French Continuations attribute the decision to arrange this marriage to Richard than to any of those at Tyre, whether Isabella, Henry or the French, and they say he took others unawares by the speed with which he moved after Conrad's death." Family F3037
 
67 "In the year of our Lord's incarnation 860, which was the twelfth of King Alfred's life, Æthelbald was buried at Sherborne. His brother Æthelbert, as was right, added Kent, Surrey, and Sussex to his realm. In his days a great army of heathen came from the sea, and attacked and laid waste the city of Winchester. As they were returning laden with booty to their ships, Osric, Ealdorman of Hampshire, with his men, and Ealdorman Æthelwulf, with the men of Berkshire, faced them bravely. Battle was then joined in the town, and the heathen were slain on every side; and finding themselves unable to resist, they took to flight like women, and the Christians held the battle-field." Æthelberht King of Wessex (I20722)
 
68 "In the year of our Lord's incarnation 866, which was the eighteenth of King Alfred's life, Æthelred, brother of King Æthelbert, undertook the government of the West Saxon realm. The same year a great fleet of heathen came to Britain from the Danube, and wintered in the kingdom of the East Saxons, which is called in Saxon East Anglia; and there they became in the main an army of cavalry."  Æthelred I King of Wessex (I14611)
 
69 "In the year of our Lord's incarnation 868, which was the twentieth of King Alfred's life, the aforesaid revered King Alfred, then occupying only the rank of viceroy (secundarii), betrothed and espoused a noble Mercian lady, daughter of Æthelred, surnamed Mucin, Ealdorman of the Gaini. The mother of this lady was named Eadburh, of the royal line of Mercia, whom I often saw with my own eyes a few years before her death. She was a venerable lady, and after the decease of her husband remained many years a chaste widow, even till her own death."

 
Family F2432
 
70 "Individuals who, the next September, purchase Menunkatuck, afterwards Guilford, enter into the following covenant: We whose names are hereunder written, intending by God's gracious permission to plant ourselves in New England, and, if it may be, in the southerly part about Quinnipiack, we do faithfully promise each to each, for ourselves and our families, and those that belong to us, that we will, the Lord assisting us, sit down and join ourselves together in one entire plantation, and to be helpful each to the other in any common work, according to every man's ability, and as need shall require; As for our gathering together in a church way, and the choice of officers and members to be joined together in that way, we do refer ourselves until such time as it shall please God to settle us in our plantation." Dowd, Henry (I17544)
 
71 "It does not, of course, follow that the Angevin empire would have become a permanent or near permanent of the political map of Europe if only Richard had lived longer - outlived Philip Augustus, for example. The empire was a family firm. The interests of the family counted for more than any notion of keeping the empire intact under a single rule; a partition was always in the cards. * * * As it happened, of course, the empire weakened in 1199 and collapsed in 1203-4. This was because John's shortcomings as a ruler enabled King Philip to take advantage of the empire's old structural 'weakness', its partibility. It was not because the empire had recently been 'exhausted' by the costs and stresses of war - costs and stresses which had hit Philip's realm more than they had hit Richard's." John I King of England (I10786)
 
72 "It does not, of course, follow that the Angevin empire would have become a permanent or near permanent of the political map of Europe if only Richard had lived longer - outlived Philip Augustus, for example. The empire was a family firm. The interests of the family counted for more than any notion of keeping the empire intact under a single rule; a partition was always in the cards. * * * As it happened, of course, the empire weakened in 1199 and collapsed in 1203-4. This was because John's shortcomings as a ruler enabled King Philip to take advantage of the empire's old structural 'weakness', its partibility. It was not because the empire had recently been 'exhausted' by the costs and stresses of war - costs and stresses which had hit Philip's realm more than they had hit Richard's." Richard I King of England (I10833)
 
73 "It has been generally believed that [William] was first married in 1088, at age sixteen, to Ermengarde, daughter of Fulk IV of Anjou. Biographers have described Ermengarde as beautiful and well-educated, though suffering from severe mood swings. However, Ruth Harvey's 1993 critical investigation shows the assumption of William's marriage to Ermengarde to be based largely on an error in a nineteenth-century secondary source and it is highly likely that Philippa of Toulouse was William's only wife." See, "The wives of the 'first troubadour', Duke William IX of Aquitaine", Journal of Medieval History, Vol. 19, Issue 4 (1993), pp. 307-325. Family F4876
 
74 "It looks as though the agreement of March 1186 had failed to establish beyond all possibility of argument whether or not the Angevins could keep the Vexin if Alice remained unmarried. Unquestionably, if either Richard or John had married her, it would have added plausibility to Philip's claim that this vital territory was his sister's marriage portion and, as such, might one day be returned to France. If, on the other hand, Henry II wished to maintain that the Vexin belonged of old to Normandy and was therefor his by hereditary right, it was safer not to confuse the issue by marrying Alice to one of his sons. Whatever the legal rights and wrongs, so long as the Angevins actually held Gisors they were negotiating from a position of strength and could reasonably hope that one day a king of France would be forced to concede their case. The fate of Alice, more than twenty-five years in the king of England's custody without ever being married, has puzzled modern historians just as much as contemporary ones. Gossip said that the Old King had seduced her and that Richard would not marry his father's mistress." France, Alix de Countess Ponthieu (I13336)
 
75 "It was with Edgar that the kingdom of England was finally established; when subsequent kings wanted to affirm their right to rule they would generally cite Edgar's reign as being the time when everything worked." Eadgar the Peaceable King of England (I11228)
 
76 "James M Askew dec'd in which his widow had a life Estate." William Askew, executor; Leonard Peek; Nathan Barnes; and James H Nelms, commissioners. Sales ca. March 1858 to John S. Reid (Sally and child; 136 acres); J. B. Askew (Sintira [?]); and W. P. Andrews.  Askew, James M (I0033)
 
77 "John chose to marry Isabella for political reasons, and those reasons had much to do with the trouble he was having in securing his hold over his inheritance and the problems he was encountering in the heartlands of his Angevin realm. The city of Angoulême was perched on a rocky spur overlooking the River Charente, which exited the Atlantic at the port of La Rochelle, crucial for John's control of Poitou. Angoulême itself was a nodal point for many roads, and as such was of great tactical importance. Bringing the count of Angoulême on his side by marrying his daughter and only surviving child, and, therefore, his heir, made good strategic sense for John, and since she came with a dowry, he stood to gain territorially before his father-in-law died, too." Family F2961
 
78 "John had at least seven bastards, probably more. The mother of his daughter Joan, who married Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of Wales, was Clementia, wife of Henry Pinel. The names of other mistresses appear in the records, but none seems to have enjoyed John's attentions for long, although he was generous to them while they were in favour. The evidence suggests that he was emotionally shallow." Family F3118
 
79 "Likened by one contemporary to 'Alexander, Hector and Achilles', a skilled veteran in the art of war and politics of power, James had been one of the first western knights to take the cross in November 1187." d'Avesnes, Jacques Seigneur d'Avesnes (I19419)
 
80 "Major Genl. Poyntz in the army of the Parliament is well known, but most of his kinsmen were fighting for the King. Captn. Newdigate Poyntz was killed at Gainsborough; and as he had assigned his property before the Civil War began, his estate was nominal: yet a fine of £30 was imposed on his widow, who lodged this short petition:

30 Apl. 1646. The humble petition of Mary Poyntz widdowe late wife of Newdigate Poyntz deceased. Sheweth that yor petnr' husband was Captain of a troope of horse under the command of Colonel Candish in the garrison of Newark and at the Seige of Gainsborough he was slaine.

The widow's case was urged by Speaker Lenthall, who wrote thus on her behalf to the Committee at Goldsmiths' Hall:

'Gentlemen, This bearer's late husband Captain Newdigate Poynes haveinge beene in armes about three yeares since, and he now being dead and she lefte with five younge children, her case hath been specially recommended to mee by her brother Major Gen1 Poynes now at ye seige at Newarke, that you and the house might be acquainted therewith, hee makeing it his request that she might receive favor for his sake; wheh I am confident ye house will doe; nevertheles she desires herewith to present herselfe and her case unto you wch I shall upon sight according to ye desire of Gen1. Poyntz acquaint you withall and the house when it shall come thither, ever resting

Yor assured friend
Wm. Lenthall
30 April 1646" 
Family F1839
 
81 "Maltravers was an official keeper of the king with [Thomas] Berkeley, charged with protecting the king's safety, and so implicated in the same charges as brought against Berkeley. This is stated explicitly by both Berekley and the prosecution in the course of Berkeley's trial. After the acceptance of Lord Berkeley's second statement, that he was away from his castle at the time of the murder, Maltravers was even more strongly implicated. But he was not accused." Maltravers, John 1st Baron Maltravers (I14871)
 
82 "Mandeville, Geoffrey de" by John Horace Round

MANDEVILLE, GEOFFREY de, Earl of Essex (d. 1144), rebel, was the son of William de Mandeville, constable of the Tower, and the grandson of Geoffrey de Mandeville, a companion of the Conqueror, who obtained a considerable fief in England, largely composed of the forfeited estates of Esgar*(or Asgar) the staller. Geoffrey first appears in the Pipe Roll of 1130, when he had recently succeeded his father. With the exception of his presence at King Stephen's Easter court in 1136, we hear nothing of him till 1140, when he accompanied Stephen against Ely (Cott. MS. Titus A. vi. f. 34), and subsequently (according to William of Newburgh) took advantage of his position as constable of the Tower to detain Constance of France in that fortress, after her betrothal to Eustace, the son of Stephen, who bitterly resented the outrage. He must, however, have succeeded in obtaining from the king before the latter's capture at Lincoln (2 Feb. 1141) the charter creating him Earl of Essex, which is still preserved among the Cottonian Charters (vii. 4), and which is probably the earliest creation-charter now extant.

From this point his power and his importance rapidly increased, chiefly owing to his control of the Tower. He also exercised great influence in Essex, where lay his chief estates and his strongholds of Pleshy and Saffron Walden. On the arrival of the Empress Maud in London (June 1141), he was won over to her side by an important charter confirming him in the earldom of Essex, creating him hereditary sheriff, justice, and escheator of Essex, and granting him estates, knights' fees, and privileges. He deserted her cause, however, on her expulsion from London, seized her adherent the bishop, and was won over by Stephen's queen to assist her in the siege of Winchester. Shortly after the liberation of the king Geoffrey obtained from him, as the price of his support, a charter (Christmas 1141) pardoning his treason, and trebling the grants made to him by the empress. He now became sheriff and justice of Hertfordshire and of London and Middlesex, as well as of Essex, thus monopolising all administration and judicial power within these three counties. Early in the following year he was despatched by Stephen against Ely to disperse the bishop's knights, a task which he accomplished with vigour. His influence was now so great that the author of the 'Gesta Stephani' describes him as surpassing all the nobles of the land in wealth and importance, acting everywhere as king, and more eagerly listened to and obeyed than the king himself. Another contemporary writer speaks of him as the foremost man in England. His ambition, however, was still unsatisfied, and he aspired by a fresh treason to play the part of king-maker. He accordingly began to intrigue with the empress, who was preparing to make a fresh effort on behalf of her cause. Meeting her at Oxford some time before the end of June (1142), he extorted from her in a new charter concessions even more extravagant than those he had wrung from Stephen. He also obtained from her at the same time a charter in favour of his brother-in-law, Aubrey de Vere (afterwards Earl of Oxford), another Essex magnate. But the ill-success of her cause was unfavourable to his scheme, and he remained, outwardly at least, in allegiance to the king. His treasonable intentions, however, could not be kept secret, and Stephen, who already dreaded his power, was warned that he would lose his crown unless he mastered the earl. It was not, however, till the following year (1143) that he decided, or felt himself strong enough, to do this. At St. Albans, probably about the end of September, Geoffrey, who was attending his court, was openly accused of treason by some of his jealous rivals, and, on treating the charge with cynical contempt, was suddenly arrested by the king after a sharp struggle. Under threat of being hanged, he was forced to surrender his castles of Pleshey and Saffron Walden, and, above all, the Tower of London, the true source of his might. He was then set free, 'to the ruin of the realm/ in the words of the ' Gesta Stephani.'

Rushing forth from the presence of the king, 'like a vicious and riderless horse, kicking and biting' in his rage, the earl burst into revolt. With the help of his brother-in-law, William de Say, and eventually of the Earl of Norfolk, he made himself master of the fenland, the old resort of rebels. Advancing from Fordham, he secured, in the absence of Bishop Nigel, the Isle of Ely, and pushing on thence seized Ramsey Abbey, which he fortified and made his headquarters. From this strong position he raided forth with impunity, burning and sacking Cambridge and other smaller places. Stephen marched against him, but in vain, for the earl took refuge among the fens. The king, however, having fortified Burwell, which threatened Geoffrey's communications, the earl attacked the post (August 1144), and while doing so was wounded in the head. The wound proved fatal, and the earl died at Mildenhall in Suffolk about the middle of September, excommunicate for his desecration and plunder of church property. His corpse was carried by some Templars to the Old Temple in Holborn, where it remained unburied for nearly twenty years. At last, his son and namesake having made reparation for his sins, Pope Alexander pronounced his absolution (1163), and his remains were interred at the New Temple, where an effigy of him was, but erroneously, supposed to exist.

The earl, who presented a perfect type of the ambitious feudal noble, left by his wife Rohese, daughter of Aubrey de Vere (chamberlain of England), at least three sons: Ernulf (or Ernald), who shared in his revolt, and was consequently exiled and disinherited, together with his descendants; and Geoffrey (d. 1166) and William Mandeville [q. v.], who succeeded him in turn, and were both Earls of Essex.

[Geoffrey de Mandeville: a Study of the Anarchy, 1892, by the present writer.]

J. H. R. 
Mandeville, Geoffrey II de Earl of Essex (I17714)
 
83 "Martin Rigdon, Samuel Smith, Joseph Perry, ___ Mourrice and Jessee Steadham escaped through the picketing together. The latter was shot through the thigh early in the action, and Mourrice in the shoulder. Leaping the fence in front of the bastion, over the heads of the squatting Indians, they reached the swamp, where they remained three days, when, finding an old canoe below the Boat Yard, they made their escape to Mount Vernon. Edward Steadham, who was wounded in the hand while flying from the bastion, entered the swamp, swam the Alabama above the Cut-Off, and arrived at Mount Vernon four days after the massacre." Steadham, Jesse (I8235)
 
84 "Martin Rigdon, Samuel Smith, Joseph Perry, ___ Mourrice and Jessee Steadham escaped through the picketing together. The latter was shot through the thigh early in the action, and Mourrice in the shoulder. Leaping the fence in front of the bastion, over the heads of the squatting Indians, they reached the swamp, where they remained three days, when, finding an old canoe below the Boat Yard, they made their escape to Mount Vernon. Edward Steadham, who was wounded in the hand while flying from the bastion, entered the swamp, swam the Alabama above the Cut-Off, and arrived at Mount Vernon four days after the massacre." Steadham, Edward (I9031)
 
85 "Miss Mary Nieves Ximenez and her sister Miss Frederica, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ximenez, were dark-eyed beauties of much charm and vivacity. Their mother was a di Borgo from the island of Corsica; a granddaughter of the statesman Pozzo di Borgo, who was a companion of Napoleon. When the latter left Corsica, the di Borgo family went to Spain, and married into the family of Cardinal Ximenez, whence they went to St. Augustine, and from there came to Key West. * * *

The Misses Hortensia and Louisa Tatine, half sisters of Misses Petrona and Mary Martinelli, were four bright, vivacious and attractive belles of their day. Like Mrs. Ximenez, they were descended from Pozzo di Borgo. Miss Hortensia married Lieutenant Mayo Carrington Watkins of the United States navy. He, too, resigned his position when the Civil War broke out, and cast his fortune with his native land. Mrs. Watkins is living in Washington, D. C., where she has made her home for many years a charming and delightful woman, who embellishes her conversation with the flavor of the old regime.

Miss Louisa Tatine married Mr. Fernando J. Moreno. She lived in Pensacola for many years and died in 1909. She left four children, Mrs. W. A. Blount, Mrs. W. H. Hunt, Miss Louise, and Fernando, who live in Pensacola, and Mason S. Moreno of Key West."  
Family F1359
 
86 "Mortally wounded" during the siege of Bristol, July 1643. Villiers, William 2nd Viscount Grandison of Limerick (I16580)
 
87 "Mr. Emmett Dickinson, the eldest son of Mrs. W. H. Dickinson, died on Tuesday morning at 2 o'clock, and the funeral took place on Wednesday at 10 o'clock from the residence on Thirteenth Street. He was a young man, being only 23 years of age and had been ill for several months with consumption...." The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, September 13, 1895, reproduced at Fred R. Hartz and Emilie K. Hartz, Marriage and Death Notices From the Griffin (Georgia) Weekly News and The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, 1882-1896 (Vidalia, Georgia: The Gwendolyn Press), 296. Dickinson, Robert Emmett (I0623)
 
88 "Mr. McDowell was an intelligent, common sense sort of man; he was a farmer living near Mt. Olive, and was personally popular, as a proof of which he was the first candidate that the opposite political party had succeeded in electing. The two political parties in that day were known as "Union" and "state Rights," or "Nullifiers" as they were called by some. The Union party were the followers of Andrew Jackson on the tariff question, which had so excited the state of South Carolina a few years previous. The party was afterward known as the Democratic Party. The State Rights party held to the position of John C. Calhoun, and afterwards took the name of Whig Party- both parties honorable in following the lead of such illustrious men as Jackson and Calhoun. The Union Party claimned a majority of fifty or a hundred votes in the county and had heretofore invariably elected their men. The State Rights Party, relying on the good sense and personal popularity of McDowell, succeeded in electing him three times to the legislature and once after it was known as the Whig Party. He raised an intelligent family of children, two of his sons, P. H. and Dr. George M. McDowell, holding positions of honor before their death."

Lizzie R. Mitchell, History of Pike County Georgia (Spartanburg, South Carolina: The Reprint Company, 1980), p. 29.

 
McDowell, Charles (I1060)
 
89 "Mr. Stephen Jennings was slain by the Indians, in Brookfield, July 22, 1710. He and five others, being at work in the meadow making hay, were sprung upon suddenly by the Indians, and killed."  Jennings, Stephen (I21584)
 
90 "Mrs. Clark Dickenson died at her husband's residence near Williamson at ten o'clock yesterday morning of consumption. She was a daughter of J. L. Jackson and will be buried at his family burying ground at ten o'clock today." The Weekly News, May 17, 1889, reproduced at Fred R. Hartz and Emilie K. Hartz, Marriage and Death Notices From the Griffin (Georgia) Weekly News and The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, 1882-1896 (Vidalia, Georgia: The Gwendolyn Press), 150.

* * * *

The Pike County Journal. Zebulon, Pike County, Georgia, November 26, 1897

Marriage

Beauchamp - Jackson

At the residence of Mr. Clark Dickerson near Williamson Sunday afternoon at 2:30 o’clock, Miss Lucia Jackson was united in marriage to Mr. C. C. Beauchamp. This marriage was a very quiet one and only a few friends and relatives were present. As Miss Jackson, Mrs. Beauchamp was very popular, having many friends and admirers everywhere she was known. She is a young lady of culture, refinement
and beauty. Mr. Beauchamp is a prosperous young merchant of Williamson and is well known
throughout this section of the state as a man of good sense and business ability. The Journal joins their many friends in wishing them a long happy and prosperous marriage.

(Transcribed 07/30/03 Lynn Cunningham)

Additional Comments:
At Williamson Baptist Church Cemetery, Pike County, Georgia:
Charles Croghan Beauchamp, b. 31 Dec. 1873, d. 7 Mar 1934

Lucia Jackson was a sister to Collie Jackson (Mrs. Clark) Dickerson and that is why the marriage took place at their home. Lucia and Collie’s mother was Margaret M. Allen before her marriage to John L. Jackson. Her parents were Robert (Maj. Bob) A. Allen and Priscilla Wright.

Charles Croghan Beauchamp was a son of Dr. J.C. Beauchamp and his first wife, Ella Harriet Gregg.
 
Jackson, Collie (I0190)
 
91 "Mrs. Garland Dies; Funeral Saturday

Mrs. Effie Pauline Garland, widow of the late Dr. H.J. Garland, died early Thursday night at her home at 129 South 13th street. She was born in Pike County but came to Griffin as a small girl and had lived here since that time. She was a member of the First Baptist Church. Funeral services will be conducted Saturday morning at 11 o'clock from Pittman Chapel. The Rev. H.M. Lindsey will officiate and burial will be in Oak Hill Cemetery. She is survived by a daughter, Mrs. Frank S. Patton, of Jonesboro, Tenn.; a son, H. S. Garland of Atlanta and a grandson, Walter G. Patton of Jonesboro, Tenn. Her body will remain at Pittman Funeral Home until the funeral."

Griffin Daily News, Friday, January 17, 1958 
Dickinson, Effie Pauline (I1386)
 
92 "Never mustered into service, never in camps." Drewry, Lucius Q (I3128)
 
93 "Newdigate Poyntz...had eight children by Sarah Foxley, four sons and four daughters, and from this marriage descend the Poyntzes of Hexton, Herts, allied by two marriages to the ancient family of Taverner, and for two generations Lords of the manor of Hexton. Fifth in direct descent from Newdigate came the Rev. Newdigate Poyntz, Rector of Tormarton, Gloucestershire. His eldest son, the Rev. Nathaniel Poyntz, had one son, Newdigate, who died at Winchester College, aged 18, in the lifetime of his father, and on the very day of his grandfather's funeral at Tormarton. The succession, in consequence of the death of this only son, passed to a nephew, the Rev. Newdigate Poyntz, son of Newdigate Poyntz, Commander, R.N., who was second son of the Rector of Tormarton, and this Rev. Newdigate Poyntz, Vicar of Little Drayton, Salop, is father to the child whose birth occurred in 1875." Family F0534
 
94 "No good supporting evidence has been presented for the names of Eleanor [Alienora, e.g., MGH SS {Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores Series} 9: 307, n. 19] or Judith [e.g., Grierson (1941) {Philip Grierson, "The relations between England and Flanders before the Norman Conquest", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 4th ser., 23: 71-113}, 96, n. 2] sometimes supplied for her." Normandie, FNU de (I8810)
 
95 "Not 1167, the date erroneously given in many history books. 1167 is the date given by Robert of Torigni, but it must be inaccurate: in 1167 Henry was on the continent and Eleanor in England at the time when she would have conceived, and both spent Christmas in Normandy." John I King of England (I10786)
 
96 "On 17 November the Earl of Arundel and two of his associates, John Daniel and Thomas de Micheldever, were beheaded. In the words of the chronicler Murimuth, Roger [de Mortimer] hated these men with a 'perfect hatred'. The earl had been a sworn enemy of Galveston ever since the tournament of Wallingford. He had moreover taken arms against Roger's uncle [Mortimer of Chirk] in 1312. He had opposed Roger and his uncle during the Despenser war, had taken the lands of Roger's uncle and some of Roger's own estates. He had been part of the embassy which had persuaded Roger to surrender at Shrewsbury by giving the false guarantee that his life would be saved. His defense of Hugh Despenser was just another reason for him to suffer the full penalty of the law."  FitzAlan, Edmund 9th Earl of Arundel (I11409)
 
97 "On 18 February 1229, Frederick agreed terms with the Ayyubid sultan. In return for a ten year truce and Frederick's military protection against all enemies, even Christians, al-Kamil surrendered Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth, together with a corridor of land linking the Holy City with the coast. Muslims were to retain access to the Haram as-Sharif, with their own qadi to supervise this sacred area, but otherwise they were to abandon the city. For the first time in forty years the Holy Sepulchre would again be in Christian hands- an excommunicate emperor had achieved what no crusader since 1187 could, and all without spilling a single drop of blood." Staufen, Friedrich II von King of Sicily and Germany, HRE (I12415)
 
98 "On the 24th of May, 1554, Queen Mary gave him [Hungerford], in reward for his 'various services,' a further grant of the lands, &c, forfeited by his late father, and amongst these 'the manor and castle of Farley.' So the Hungerfords held again their ancestral home, and Walter had a respectable estate to boast of. He now seems to have lost no time in taking a wife, as, but a fortnight after obtaining the grant of Farley, he married Anne Basset. One Robert Swyfte, writing from London to the Earl of Shrewsbury, under date of 1 ith June, 1554, thus describes the wedding:-

On Thursday last was married at Richmond, Basset the Queen's maid, to Mr Hungerfurthe, son and heir to Lord Hungerfurthe, at which day the Queen shewed herself very pleasant, commanding all mirth and pastime.

However, this marriage, celebrated as it was under such favourable auspices, must have been of short duration, as four years later, on the 5th of July, 1558, the Queen made Walter another grant, in consideration of his then marriage with Anne, one of the daughters of Sir William Dormer of Ascot, from whom, eleven years afterwards-namely, in 1569, he was divorced." 
Family F5126
 
99 "One of the first Indian traders was George Galphin, an Irishman. He raised a large family; and of the five varieties of the human family; he raised children from three, and no doubt would have gone the whole hog, but the Malay and Mongol were out of his reach. His white children were of the highest and most polished order- Mrs. Governor Milledge was one of them. He had two negroes, Mina, a woman, and Ketch, a man; they were brother and sister. He raised one daughter from Mina and called her Barbary. She married an Irishman by the name of Holmes, and raised Dr. Thomas G. Holmes, whom Col. Pickett often alludes to in his History of Alabama, as having had conversations with him. At Galphin's death Mina was set free and died at old Timothy Barnard's, on the Flint river, Ga., many years back. Ketch was an interpreter among the Indians for Galpin- was his stock minder- kept stock at Galphin's cowpens, where Louisville in Jefferson county, Ga., now stands, and which was once the seat of government of that state. Ketch helped put up the first cabin at old Galphinton, on the Ogeechee, for an Indian trading house. At Galphin's death Ketch was sold, and was purchased by Gen. [John] Twiggs of the revolution. He was a body servant of Gen Twiggs during the war. At the close of the war, Ketch left his master and went into the Creek Nation. * * * Gen. Twiggs gave Ketch to me. He (Ketch) was about six feet six inches high, very straight, and retained his bodily strength as well as mental faculties, to a most astonishing degree. The Gen. did not give me Ketch expecting me to profit by it, but wished him cared for in his old age, as he had been a faithful servant to his father in trying times. I purchased Ketch's family, and he live till 1840. I buried him under a large oak about a mile from Tuskegee, a place that he selected for that purpose. I had a little mill on a creek near Tuskegee, where I kept Ketch and several other Indian negroes, and here I used to spend much time listening to them tell over old occurrences of by-gone days. From the best calculations we could make, Ketch lived to be near a hundred years old." Galphin, George I (I5426)
 
100 "Philip still harboured hopes of launching an invasion of England and to this end had entered negotiations for a marriage alliance with Denmark. On 15 August 1193 he married Ingeborg, the daughter of King Cnut VI. As a successor of the famous Cnut, the eleventh-century conqueror and king of England, Cnut VI possessed both a tenuous claim to the throne of England and a fleet. Philip was interested in both these assets but, unfortunately for Ingeborg, he had lost interest by the morning after the wedding. He repudiated his new wife and tried to return her to the custody of the Danish envoys who had escorted her to Franc. They refused to take her back and departed in haste, leaving Ingeborg to her fate. For years Philip was to endure the condemnation of the Church rather than have Ingeborg as his queen. His dream of a new Danish invasion of England had become a domestic nightmare." Family F5930
 

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