Southern Anthology

Families on the Frontiers of the Old South

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2151 STAFFORD, HUMPHREY, first Duke of Buckingham (1402-1460), was son of Edmund, fifth earl of Stafford [see under Stafford, Ralph de, first Earl]. His mother, Anne (d. 1438), was daughter and eventually sole heir of Thomas, duke of Gloucester [see Thomas, (d. 1397)], youngest son of Edward III, and his wife Eleanor, coheir of the last Bohun, earl of Hereford, Northampton, and Essex. Born in 1402, Stafford was only a year old when his father's early death in the battle of Shrewsbury made him Earl of Stafford. He served in France in 1420-21, and was knighted by Henry V in the latter year (Gesta Henrici V, pp. 144, 279). In December 1422 he received livery of his lands (Foedera, x. 259). Young as he was, Stafford appears in the council of Henry VI as early as February 1424, and became one of its more prominent members (Ordinances of the Privy Council, iii. 143). He had a hand in reconciling Beaufort and Humphrey of Gloucester in 1426. Three years later Stafford became knight of the Garter, and in 1430 accompanied the young king abroad, and was made constable of France with the governorship of Paris. The day after his arrival (1 Sept.) there he made a dash into Brie and recovered some strongholds (Journal d'un Bourgeois de Paris, p. 259; Wavrin, pp. 373-374, 393; Monstrelet, ed. Douet d'Arcq, iv. 405; Chron. London, pp. 170-1). Turning back from Sens, he was in Paris again on 9 Oct., and lodged in the Hôtel des Tournelles (Paris pendant la domination anglaise, p. 317). Bedford soon after relieved him, and Stafford became lieutenant-general of Normandy, an office which he retained until 1432, when he returned to England. In the previous year he had been created by Henry VI Count of Perche, a title in which he succeeded Thomas Beaufort (Revue des Questions historiques, xviii. 510). On his return he seems to have opposed Gloucester's ambitious schemes (Ordinances, iv. 113).

In August 1436 he took part in a short campaign in Flanders, and two years later there was again some talk of his going to France. He acted as one of the English representatives in the peace negotiations of June 1439 at Calais (ib. v. 98, 334; Stevenson, vol. ii. p. xlix). After his mother's death, in October 1438, Stafford was known as Earl of Buckingham (Ordinances, v. 209). He was appointed in 1442 captain of the town of Calais, an office which he held for some years, but frequently performed its duties by deputy. He took a leading part in the peace negotiations of 1445 and 1446, and was created Duke of Buckingham on the very day (14 Sept. 1444) that Gloucester's great enemy, Suffolk, was made a marquis (Rot. Parl. vi. 128; cf. Ordinances, vi. 33, 39; Engl. Chron. ed. Davies, p. 61). The creation of Henry de Beauchamp as Duke of Warwick in the following April, with precedence over him, drew from him a protest, which parliament met (1445) by decreeing that the two dukes should have precedence of each other year and year about. The death of the Duke of Warwick on 11 June following, however, soon supplied a more radical solution of the difficulty. Buckingham took the precaution to secure in 1447 a grant of special precedence before all dukes of subsequent creation not of royal blood. This doubtless was the reward of his prominent share in the arrest of Gloucester at Bury St. Edmunds in February of that year (ib. pp. 63, 117). He was also granted Penshurst and other of Gloucester's Kentish estates (Rot. Parl. v. 309). In June 1450 he was employed in a vain attempt to make terms with Cade's insurgents, and after the collapse of the rebellion was one of the commissioners who sat at Rochester for the trial of the rebels. In the same year he became warden of the Cinque ports and constable of Dover and Queenborough castles, and in the autumn he provided a strong guard for the king at Kenilworth and Coventry (Issue Roll, p. 478). His wages as captain of Calais had by November 1449 fallen into arrears to the extent of over 19,000l., but parliament then gave him a lien on the customs and subsidies (Rot. Parl. v. 206). He seems to have resigned this unprofitable post to Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset [q. v.], in 1451. In February 1455 he helped to bail out Somerset, and to arbitrate between him and Richard, duke of York (Foedera, xi. 361-2). He had shown his dislike of York's ambition a year before by consenting to act as lord steward at the Earl of Devonshire's trial (Rot. Parl. v. 249). He it was, too, who had presented the infant prince Edward to the mad king without succeeding in making him understand that a son and heir had been born to him (Paston Letters, i. 263). About the same time (January 1454) Buckingham was reported to have had two thousand Stafford knots (his badge of livery) made 'to what intent men may construe as their wits will give them' (ib. i. 265). He consistently supported the queen against York, and on Henry's recovery accompanied him against the duke. He vainly endeavoured to make an arrangement with York on the eve of the battle of St. Albans (Whethamstede, Annals, i. 167). He was wounded in the face at the battle (Paston Letters, i. 327, 330-3). But he soon recognised the accomplished fact, and 'swore to be ruled and draw the line' with York and his friends (ib. i. 335). He and his half-brothers, the Bourchiers, were bound in very heavy recognisances. The act of resumption passed by the Yorkist parliament contained an express exception in favour of his crown grants, and he was placed on various committees (Rot. Parl. v. 279, 287). Entrusted with the ungrateful task of investigating a riot between the Londoners and some Italians, he was put in fear of his life, and in May 1456 fled to Writtle, near Chelmsford, 'nothing well pleased' (Fabyan, p. 630; Paston Letters, i. 386). Before the end of the year Queen Margaret temporarily estranged him by the abrupt dismissal of Archbishop Bourchier and Viscount Bourchier from their offices. But on the whole his sympathies were with the royal party; possibly he had ideas of holding the balance between Margaret and the Duke of York. Sir James Ramsay thus explains the incident (which he thinks occurred on this occasion) of Buckingham reminding York that he 'had nothing to lean to but the king's grace' (Rot. Parl. v. 347). In April 1457 Buckingham was with the court at Hereford, and a year later accompanied the queen to London for the famous 'loveday' between the two rival parties (Paston Letters, i. 416, 426). He remained loyal on the reopening of the struggle in 1459, and in the February following received a grant in recognition of his services against the rebels in Kent (Foedera, xi. 443). A few months later he sent away the bishops, who appeared with an armed retinue just before the battle of Northampton (10 July 1460) to demand a royal audience for the Yorkist peers. 'Ye come,' said Buckingham, 'not as bishops to treat for peace, but as men of arms' (English Chron. ed. Davies, p. 96). In the combat that ensued he was slain by the Kentish men beside the king's tent (ib. p. 97). His remains were laid in the church of the Greyfriars at Northampton (Dugdale, i. 166). In his will he left gifts to the canons of Maxstoke (Maxstoke Castle in Warwickshire being a favourite residence) and to the college of Pleshey in Essex, which he had inherited from Thomas of Gloucester (ib.) He was perhaps the greatest landowner in England; his estates lay all over central England, from Holderness to Brecknock, and from Stafford to Tunbridge.

A portrait at Penshurst has no claim to be a likeness; it was painted by Lucas Cornelisz [q. v.] under Henry VIII, as one of a series representing constables of Queenborough (cf. Walpole, Letters, ed. Cunningham, ii. 302). Probably more trustworthy is the head on the tomb of Richard Beauchamp (d. 1454) at Warwick, engraved in Doyle's Official Baronage.

Buckingham married Anne, daughter of Ralph Neville, first earl of Westmorland [q. v.] She was godmother of the unfortunate Prince Edward (Henry VI's son), and did not die until 20 Sept. 1480, surviving a second husband, Walter Blount, lord Mountjoy (Rot. Parl. vi. 128; English Chron. ed. Davies, p. 109; Testamenta Vetusta, p. 356). By her Buckingham had seven sons (four of whom died young) and five daughters. Of the sons who reached manhood, Humphrey was 'gretly hurt' in the battle of St. Albans (1455), and died not long after (Paston Letters, i. 333; Rot. Parl. v. 308), leaving by his wife Margaret, daughter of Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset [q. v.], a son Henry Stafford, second duke of Buckingham [q. v.] Henry, apparently the second son of the first duke, married, before 1464, the better known Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John, first duke of Somerset, and mother of Henry VII by her first husband, Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond; he died in 1481 (Stafford MSS. vol. i. f. 346b; Test. Vet. p. 324; cf. State Papers, Venetian, i. 103). The first duke's third surviving son was John, K.G. and earl of Wiltshire, who died 8 May 1473.

The five daughters were: 1. Anne, who married, first, Aubrey de Vere, heir-apparent of the Lancastrian earl of Oxford, who was executed with his father in 1462; secondly, Sir Thomas Cobham of Sterborough (d. 1471); she died in 1472. 2. Joanna, married, before 1461, to William, viscount Beaumont, from whom she was separated before 1477, and married, secondly, Sir William Knyvet of Buckenham in Norfolk; she was living in 1480. 3. Elizabeth. 4. Margaret. 5. Catherine, married, before 1467, to John Talbot, third earl of Shrewsbury (d. 1473); she died 26 Dec. 1476.

About 1450 there was some talk of marrying one of Buckingham's daughters, probably the eldest, to the dauphin, afterwards Louis XI (Beaucourt, Hist. de Charles VII, v. 137).

[Many details of the Stafford family history are contained in Lord Bagot's Stafford MSS. described in Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. pp. 325 et seq. See also Rotuli Parliamentorum; Proceedings and Ordinances of Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; Inquisitiones post mortem (Record Comm.) and Rymer's Foedera (orig. ed.); Issue Roll of the Exchequer, ed. Devon; Gesta Henrici V (English Hist. Soc.); Chron. of London and Fabyan's Chron., ed. Ellis; Wavrin's Chron. and Stevenson's Wars in France (Rolls Ser.); English Chron., ed. Davies (Camden Soc.); Journal d'un Bourgeois de Paris and Paris pendant la Domination Anglaise, publ. by the Société de l'Histoire de Paris; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner; Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta; Dugdale's Baronage; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage.] 
Stafford, Humphrey 1st Duke of Birmingham, KG (I15052)
 
2152 STAFFORD, THOMAS (1531?-1557), rebel, born about 1531 (Addit. MS. 6672, f. 193), was the ninth child, but second surviving son, of Henry Stafford, first baron Stafford [q. v.] His mother was Ursula, daughter of Sir Richard Pole, K.G., by his wife, Margaret Pole, countess of Salisbury [q. v.] Thomas was educated privately, and in July 1550 passed through Paris on his way to Rome. There an attempt seems to have been made by Cardinal Pole and Francis Peto, a nephew apparently of William Peto [q. v.], to win back Stafford and his brother Henry to the catholic faith (Cal. State Papers, For. 11547-53, pp. 70-1, 119-21). Thomas remained in Italy for three years, and in May 1553 was at Venice. On the 5th of that month a motion was carried in the council of ten 'that the jewels of St. Mark and the armoury halls of this council be shown to Mr. Thomas Stafford, the nephew of the right reverend cardinal of England' (i.e. Reginald Pole [q. v.]), and on the 9th a similar resolution permitted him and his two servants to carry arms (Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 1534-54, Nos. 749, 750). Thence he proceeded to Poland, where on 1 Oct. Sigismund Augustus, king of Poland, and his queen wrote letters strongly recommending him to Queen Mary, and requesting that he might be restored to the dukedom of Buckingham (ib. For. 1553-58, pp. 15, 16). On the way he visited his uncle at Dillingen; but the cardinal opposed his return to England, and refused to give him letters of commendation to the queen or any one else.

Mary paid no attention to the Polish king's recommendations, and this neglect, or a genuine dislike of the Spanish marriage, induced Stafford to offer a strenuous opposition to that alliance. He seems to have been concerned in Suffolk's attempted rebellion in January 1553-4 [see Grey, Henry, Duke of Suffolk], and on 16 Feb. was sent a prisoner to the Fleet (Acts of the Privy Council, 1552-1554, pp. 393, 395). He was soon at liberty, and at the end of March fled to France (cf. Pole to Cardinal de Monte, 4 April 1554). He visited his uncle at Fontainebleau, and told him that he had helped to capture Suffolk (Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 1534-54, p. 495); but Pole, fearing to offend Queen Mary and the emperor, drove him from his house. From this time Stafford threw himself actively into the intrigues of the exiles in France, and at the end of April he made an abortive attempt to assassinate Sir William Pickering [q. v.], who, after coquetting with the exiles, was once more seeking royal favour. Stafford's ambition was not merely to overthrow Mary. He was himself of royal descent on both his father's [see Stafford, Edward, third Duke of Buckingham] and his mother's side [see Pole, Margaret], and, though apparently a younger brother, he maintained that he was next heir to the throne after Mary, who had forfeited her right by marrying a Spaniard. He even adopted the full arms of England without any difference on his seal. His pretensions involved him in a quarrel with his fellow exile, Sir Robert Stafford, erroneously said to have been his brother (cf. G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage, vii. 213), and 'if ever there were a tragico comedia played, surely these men played it' (Wotton to Petre, Cal. State Papers, For. 1553-8, p. 264). On the ground that Thomas sought his life, Robert in October 1556 procured his imprisonment 'in the vilest prison of Rouen, among thieves and such honest companions.' Thomas procured his release two months later, and retaliated by having Robert cast in heavy damages in an action for 'injurious imprisonment.' Early in 1557 the English ambassador was alarmed by the favourable treatment Thomas was receiving from the French court, for Henry II of France had apparently determined to use Stafford as a pawn in the coming struggle with England. Though the French king subsequently denied having aided Stafford, it is probable that he supplied the two ships in which Stafford and his supporters embarked at Dieppe on Easter Sunday (18 April). He landed on the coast of Yorkshire and seized Scarborough Castle on the 25th; in the proclamation he issued (printed in Strype, Eccl. Mem. III. ii. 515; Maitland, Essays on the Reformation, pp. 154-6) he denounced the Spanish marriage, asserted that a Spanish army was about to land to enslave the English, called upon the people to rise, and styled himself protector (Holinshed, ed. 1586, iii. 1133; Stow, ed. 1615, pp. 630-631). But his plans were known to the English ambassador before he left France. The militia rapidly assembled under the command of Henry Neville, fifth earl of Westmorland [see under Neville, Ralph, fourth Earl]. Stafford was captured almost without a blow, and on 2 May was sent to London, where he was tried and convicted of high treason. He was hanged and quartered at Tyburn on 28 May 1557.

[Cal. State Papers, Venetian and Foreign Ser. passim. and Dom. Ser. Addenda, 1547-65, p. 449; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent; G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage, vii. 213; Rymer's Foedera, xv. 440 (document misdated 1556 for 1557); Ambassades de Noailles, 1763, 4 vols.; Reginaldi Poli Epistolæ, Brescia, 1744-57, 5 vols.; Strype's Eccl. Mem. passim; Wriothesley's Chron. and Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.); Burnet's Hist. Reformation, ed. Pocock, ii. 163; Holinshed's Chron.; Stow's Annals; Tytler's Hist. ii. 363; Froude, vi. 243, 475-6; Hinds's Making of the England of Elizabeth, pp. 92-101.] 
Stafford, Thomas (I17894)
 
2153 STAFFORD, WILLIAM (1554-1612), alleged author of the 'Compendious Examination of Certain Ordinary Complaints,' born at Rochford, Essex, on 1 March 1553-4, was second son of Sir William Stafford, by his second wife and relative, Dorothy, daughter of Henry Stafford, first baron Stafford [q. v.] Sir Edward Stafford (1552-1605) [q. v.] was his elder brother. Sir William had acquired Rochford through his first wife, Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne Boleyn, who, after being Henry VIII's mistress, married first Sir William Cary, and, after his death in 1528, Sir William Stafford. William was educated at Winchester, where he was admitted scholar in 1564 (Kirby, p. 139), and at New College, Oxford, matriculating in 1571, and being elected fellow in 1573 (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 375; Reg. Univ. Oxon. ii. ii. 54). In 1575, however, he was deprived of his fellowship for absenting himself from college beyond his prescribed leave, and he seems to have become a hanger-on at court, where his mother was mistress of the robes to Queen Elizabeth. There he suffered some slight from the Earl of Leicester, and developed into a 'lewd, miscontented young person' (Hatfield MSS. ii. 224). In June 1585 he suddenly and secretly left London for Dieppe, probably with the intention of joining his brother Sir Edward, then ambassador in Paris. He was back again in 1586, and on 26 Dec. in that year he sought an interview with the French ambassador, Châteauneuf, at his house in Bishopsgate Street, asking his aid to escape to France on the pretext of being unable to tolerate Leicester's scorn. According to Stafford's own account, the French ambassador then inveigled him into a plot for assassinating Queen Elizabeth, and securing the succession to the throne of Mary Queen of Scots. The ambassador's secretary, De Trappes, and a prisoner in Newgate named Moody were also in the plot. In the following January Stafford revealed it to Walsingham. De Trappes was arrested at Dover and Châteauneuf was summoned before the council. There he acknowledged that he had been privy to the plot, but swore that Stafford had suggested it, that he endeavoured to dissuade him, and that he would have revealed it at once had it not been for the respect in which he held Stafford's mother and brother. After some demur Châteauneuf's statements were accepted and Stafford was imprisoned in the Tower, where he remained until August 1588 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1581-90, p. 531). The plot was probably concocted by Stafford in order that his services in revealing it might win him favour at court.

After his release Stafford married, in 1593, Anne, daughter of Thomas Gryme of Antingham, Norfolk, where he resided quietly for the rest of his life. He presented various books to Winchester College, and died on 16 Nov. 1612. He left a daughter Dorothy, who married Thomas Tyndale of Eastwood Park, Gloucestershire, and a son William (1593-1684) [q. v.]

Apparently on the strength of his initials, and of an allusion in the dedication to Queen Elizabeth to 'his late undutiful behaviour,' Wood assigned to Stafford the authorship of 'A compendious or briefe examination of certayne ordinary complaints, of divers of our countrymen in these our dayes - By W. S., Gentleman' (T. Marsh, London, 1581, 4to). A second edition appeared in the same year; it was reprinted in 1751, when the publisher attributed the authorship to Shakespeare. This ridiculous assumption was easily confuted by Farmer in his 'Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare' (1821, pp. 81-4). The book, which has also been attributed to Sir Thomas Smith (1513-1577) [q. v.] and his nephew, William Smith, was republished in the 'Harleian Miscellany' (1808, vol. ix.) and in the 'Pamphleteer' (1813, vol. v.); and a German translation, by E. Leser, appeared in 1895. In 1876 it was edited for the New Shakspere Society by Dr. Furnivall, who combated the authorship of William Stafford, pointing out the absence of evidence and the absurdity of making the allusion to 'undutiful behaviour,' written in 1581, apply to treasonable practices committed in 1586. But no satisfactory attempt to investigate the authorship was made until 1891, when Miss Elizabeth Lamond contributed to the 'English Historical Review' (vi. 284-305) a conclusive refutation of Stafford's authorship. She discovered two extant manuscripts of the work-one belonging to Mr. William Lambarde, and the other formerly belonging to the Earl of Jersey (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. i. 92) and now in the Bodleian Library (Add. C. 273). A third, which escaped her notice, is is among the Hatfield MSS. (Cal. Hatfield MSS. i. 52). The Lambarde manuscript was written not later than 1565, and the Historical Manuscripts Commissioners erroneously dated the two others 1547. From internal evidence it is evident that the work was written in the summer of 1549, and it gives an invaluable account of inclosures, debasement of the coinage, and other causes of social distress during the reign of Edward VI. Miss Lamond attributed the authorship, with considerable probability, to John Hales (d. 1571) [q. v.] The work was not published until 1581, when W.S., whoever he may have been, brought it up to date, and issued it as his own composition. The alterations are clumsy; but one added passage, attributing the rise in prices to the influx of precious metals from the Indies, is notable as the first indication of the perception of this truth in England. The Lambarde manuscript was published by Miss Lamond in 1893 with introduction, appendices, and notes.

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. and Addenda, 1580-1625; Cal. Hatfield MSS. pt. iii.; Harl. MSS. 36, f. 357, 288 ff. 170-1; Camden's Annales, ed. Hearne, ii. 526-8; Wood's Fast, i. 378; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 375-6; Dr. Furnivall's Forewords to the edition of 1876; Miss Lamond's Introd. to her edition of 1893; English Hist. Rev. vi. 284-305; authorities cited in text.]

 
Stafford, William (I17899)
 
2154 Starved along with his mother. Both were captured by royal forces while attempting to flee to Ireland. Asbridge places their confinement at Windsor.  de Briouse, William IV (I11339)
 
2155 State of Alabama
Monroe County

On this twenty first day of April, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four before the acting Justice of the Peace within and for said County and State, Personally appeared William Hollinger aged sixty-eight or nine years, a resident of said County and State, being first duly sworn according to law upon his oath makes the following Declaration. That he is identical William Hollinger who was a volunteer as an Indian spy under Captain Richard Bailey who was under command of Major Beasley in the War of 1812 and were known as the Mississippi Volunteers, and after which he volunteered as a spy under Major Peacock in an expedition to Florida, after the performance of the latter service he volunteered under Major Twigs as a pilot and spy from Montgomery Hill to the banks of Murder Creek to Fort Crawford (said fort was built and erected by Major Twigs on said expedition) which latter expedition said Hollinger served for the period of thirty days. the time said Hollinger was engaged in the two services above named was about sixty days, he was at the taking of Fort Barrancas at Pensacola, Florida under General Jackson, and in all of the several expeditions he rendered the army valuable services from his experience and knowledge of the country and the Indians, being familiar within their language and habits, having been born and raised in the State of Alabama (or within the Territory of what is now the State of Alabama).

"What for said services he never obtained any written discharge, he further declares that he never applied for, or received any bounty land for any other service under any other act. He makes this declaration to obtain whatever bounty land to which he may be entitled under the act of Congress passed September 28th, 1850 -- granting bounty land to certain officers and soldiers who have been engaged in the military service of the United States.

attest
Robert Thompson

Subscribed and sworn to before me the day and year aforementioned and I further certify that I am personally acquainted with the said William Hollinger and that he is a credible man and the utmost reliance can be placed in his statement that he is a half breed; and highly respected in community, and I further certify that I am not concerned or interested in the Prosecution or result of the case, and that I believe the said Hollinger to have performed the various services specified in his declaration and that he is of the age above stated, and is a resident of the said County and State.

Robert S.Thompson

State of Alabama
Monroe County

Edward Steadham in an oath states that he is personally acquainted with the above William Hollinger and has been from his childhood, and know that he performed the service aforesaid having been engaged with him in some of the services named in his foregoing declaration and that said Hollinger is a truthful man and highly respected in community.

Edward Steadham

attest
Robert S.Thompson

Subscribed and sworn before me the day and year aforesaid and I further certify that said Edward Steadham is a credible witness and that I am not interested or concerned in the result or Prosecution of the case to which said affidavit and declaration is applicable.

Robert S.Thompson

State of Alabama
Monroe County

I, Charles Foster, Judge of Probate in and for said County and State do hereby certify that Robert Thompson whose genuine signature appears to the foregoing affidavit and declaration was at the time of signing the same and now is an acting Justice of the Peace in and for said County and State duly Commissioned and qualified according to law and that full faith and credit are, as such, due to him and his official acts, and I further certify that I am not concerned or interested in the Prosecution or result of the case in any manner whatever. In Testimony where of I have hereunto set my hand and caused my seal of office to be hereunto attached, done at Monroeville in said County and State this 24th day of April A. D. 1854.

Charles Foster
Judge of Probate  
Hollinger, William (I5724)
 
2156 State of Alabama,
Autauga County

On this 14th day of October 1834, personally appeared in open Court, before the Honorable Henley Brown, judge of the Orphans Court of said County, now sitting, Thomas Connell, a resident of said County, aged 92 years on the 10th day of March last, who being first duly sworn according to law, doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the Act of Congress, passed June 7, 1832.

That he entered the service of the United States under the following named officers, and served as herein stated.

As near as he can recollect, six months before the battle of Brandywine, he volunteered under Col. Martin Armstrong, in Surry County, in the State of North Carolina, where he was then living. He served six months in the troops of that State, and was stationed during the whole time at Salisbury N. C. He was engaged in no active service-was in no battle and at the expiration of his term of service, received a discharge-by whom signed he does not now recollect-he received it, however, from the hands of his Colonel.

In the month of November, subsequent to the battle of Brandywine, having previously removed to the County of Wilkes, in the State of Georgia, he enlisted in the regular Army of the United States under Captain James Hawkins, for three years or during the war-was marched to Augusta, Georgia-served under the said Hawkins as Captain, __Smith as Major and __Stewart as Colonel-was in the Army when the first siege of Augusta was commenced and raised, and in the battle when Augusta was afterwards captured. After the battle of Augusta, he was furloughed until further service might be required, but was ordered to be in constant readiness to perform the same, at a moment's warning. He was not called upon until the Siege of Savannah was commenced- his Regiment then rallied near Augusta, Georgia, under the same officers, except Colonel Stewart, who was superseded by Colonel Elijah Clark [sic, Elijah Clarke] and was marched upon what was called the River Road, on the southern side of the Savannah River to Savannah and was in the battle of Savannah. He cannot recollect any of the officers higher in command, at that battle, and the the Colonel of his Regiment, except General Twiggs- Count DeEstaing and Count Pulaski he well recollects. He was then furloughed and performed no more regular service during the war-but was under orders to be in constant readiness to rally, should service be required. At the conclusion of the war, but the date he cannot recollect, he received a written discharge from his Colonel, but whose signature was to the same he does not remember.

He states that his age is such, and his memory so decayed, that he cannot state positively the precise duration of the last mentioned service-but according to the best of his recollection it was not less than the three years for which he enlisted-and that he was engaged in active service not less than two years-during said last mentioned period of service.

He hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity, except the present, and declares that his name is not on the pension roll of the Agency of any state.

In answer to the several interrogatories directed to be propounded to applicants for a pension, or
by the War Department, he states-

In answer to the first-

I was born in Surry County, in the State of North Carolina, on the 10th March 1742

In answer to the second-
I have none

In answer to the third-
I was living in Surry County N. C. when I first volunteered. After the conclusion of the war, and for several years subsequent, I lived in Wilkes County Georgia-then four years in Abbeville District S. C.-then in Wilkes County Georgia again-then in Greene County in the same State. I've then removed to Autauga County Alabama, in the year 1822, where I have since lived.

In answer to the fourth-
I refer to the statement made in the body of this declaration.

In answer to the fifth-
I also refer to the same, as furnishing all the information which he I can recollect.

In answer to the sixth-
I received written discharges in both instances-but have lost the same.

In answer to the seventh-
Reverend Mr. Jacob Segrest and Henderson Rhodes

S/ Thomas Connell,
X his mark

Sworn to & subscribed the day and year aforesaid.

S/ Henly Brown, J. C. C.

* * *

State of Alabama,
Autauga County

On this 27th day of June in the year of our Lord 1835 personally appeared before me Thomas Hughes, JP, one of the Justices of the peace in and for the County aforesaid Thomas Connell, a resident of the State of Alabama Autauga County aged 97 years three months & 16 days who being first duly sworn according to Law doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the provision made by the Act of Congress, passed June 7th 1832. That he enlisted in the Army of the United States on the 11th day of March 1777 in the State of North Carolina in the County of Surry under Captain John Armstrong and served in the Continental Regiment of the North Carolina line, under the following named officers, viz.: that he enlisted on the 11th of March 1777 in the State of North Carolina & County of Surry under Captain John Armstrong, for the term of three months, but served six months in North Carolina in the Regiment commanded by Colonel Martin Armstrong. That during said time he was marched to an Indian town called [?]illico, and was the most of his time engaged in skirmishing Expeditions against the British & Tories & Indians but received no wounds. That at the expiration of his six months service he received a discharge from Captain John Armstrong which was subsequently stolen from him together with his pocketbook and all its contents at the time of the Siege of Augusta in Georgia. That after the Expiration of said six months Tour and after his discharge he returned to Surry County, his place of residence where he remained until the first of March 1778, when he enlisted the second time under Captain James Hawkins for the term of three years or during the war. That he was marched from Surry County North Carolina to Herd's Fort, Wilkes County Georgia, where he joined Colonel Elijah Clarke's Regiment of the Continental line. That this deponent was mistaken in his former declaration with respect to his enlistment in Georgia under Colonel Stewart, that on more mature reflection he is now well satisfied this statement is true. He served as a soldier from the 1st of March 1778, until the disbandment of General Washington's Army in November 1783.

That he was stationed at Herd's Fort where he was chiefly engaged in Scouting expeditions against the British and Tories & Indians.

That he was at the Sieges of Augusta and Savannah. That he was taken as a prisoner as often as three times during the Sieges of Augusta by Colonel Brown of the British & Colonel Grayson of the Tory party. That the first time he was taken as prisoner he was confined several weeks in Augusta, and was released by Colonel Watson. That at the second occasion when he was taken prisoner he was chained to John Morgan and placed under the Command of Captain Moore a Tory to be sent to Charleston. That he was carried through Orangeburg in chains-- and on the night afterwards he effected his Escape, by breaking the lock that confined the chain on his arms.

This deponent swears that he considers that he rendered actual service as a soldier from the 1st March 1778 until November 1783. That notwithstanding he was occasion permitted for a few hours at a time to visit his family when in the immediate neighborhood of their Location (which was in Wilkes County, Georgia) that even on such occasions he was rendering services to his Country by means of the Scouting parties that usually attended him. This deponent & Petitioner further swears that by reason of old age and consequent loss of memory that he cannot swear positively as to the actual precise time or length of his service but is confident that he served six months in North Carolina and five years and three months in the State of Georgia.

I hereby relinquish every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present and declare that my name is not on the pension roll of the Agency of any State.

Sworn to & subscribed the day and year aforesaid.

S/ Thomas Hughs, JP

S/ Thomas Connell,
X his mark

I Elizabeth Wallace of the County of Autauga and State of Alabama do hereby certify that I have been acquainted personally with Thomas Connell the above applicant before the revolutionary war, during the whole time of the Revolutionary war, ever since that time and do know of my own knowledge, that he rendered the services, as a soldier in the Revolution as contained in his above declaration. That I was a member in his family during the whole time of his services in the Revolution and ever since & have no hesitation in declaring the truth of his Declaration, and never have I heard his declaration doubted by any individual. I do further testify that the said Thomas Connell has been a respectable member of the Baptist Church for 30 years and is poor and helpless.

Sworn to & subscribed before me the day & year above written.

S/ Thomas Hughs, JP

S/ Elizabeth Wallace,
X her mark

* * *

Interrogatories & Answers of Thomas Connell

1st: When and in what year were you born?

Answer. I was born in the State of Maryland on the Potomac on the 10th of March 1738.

2nd Have you any record of you age and if so, where is it?

Ans: I have none it has been destroyed.

3rd Where were you living when called into service? Where have you lived since the Revolutionary War and where do you now live?

Ans: I was living in the State of North Carolina Surry County; before the revolution, during the Revolution my family followed me to Georgia, Wilkes County about 8 miles from Washington where I remained for four years after the Revolution. I then moved to South Carolina Abbeville District where I lived four years. I then removed back to Wilkes County & Georgia. That I lived in Georgia until
1820 when I moved to the State of Alabama, Autauga County.

4th How were you called into service; were you drafted; did you volunteer, or were you a substitute? and if a substitute for whome?

Ans: I enlisted in North Carolina on the 11th of March 1777 under Captain John Armstrong for the term of three months, but served six months under Colonel Martin Armstrong. That I afterwards Enlisted again on the 1st March 1778 under Captain James Hawkins for the Term of three years or during the war. That I was marched to the State of Georgia where I served under Col. Elijah Clarke until the End of the war. That I was chiefly employed in Scouting Expeditions. That I was at the Sieges of Augusta & Savannah and was during the time thrice taken prisoner & narrowly escaped my life

6th Did you ever receive a discharge from the service; and if so by whom was it given; and what has become of it?

Ans: I did received two discharges the first one from Captain John Armstrong in North Carolina. The second I received from Captain Stephen Hard of Georgia in Wilkes County. The first of which was stolen from me at the Siege of Augusta & the last without my consent or knowledge has been lost.

7th State the names of persons to whom you are known in your present neighborhood, and who can testify to your character for veracity and good behavior and your services as a Soldier of the Revolution.

Ans: William Kirk, Esq., Henderson Rhodes, John Griffs, Jeremiah Jackson, William Wallace & William N. Thompson & Thomas Hogg, Esq., & Jacob Segrest, Parson and Hardy Ranes.

Sworn to & subscribed before me the day & year above written.

S/ Thomas Hughs, JP
S/ Thomas Connell,
X his mark

I Thomas Connell do hereby certify that by reason of old age and bodily infirmity that I am unable to attend Court.

Sworn to & subscribed before me this day and year above written.

S/ Thomas Hughs, JP
S/ Thomas Connell,
X his mark

 
Connell, Thomas (I2017)
 
2157 State of Alabama, Index of Vital Records for Alabama: Deaths, 1908-1959, Montgomery, AL, USA: State of Alabama Center for Health Statistics, Record Services Division Source (S036617)
 
2158 State of California, California Death Index, 1940-1997, Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics Source (S015488)
 
2159 State of Florida, Florida Death Index, 1877-1998, Florida: Florida Department of Health, Office of Vital Records, 1998 Source (S015808)
 
2160 State of Georgia, 31st July 1798, JOEL DICKINSON of Hancock County, Georgia to ZACHARIAH MADDUX of same place for the sum of twelve pounds of money for all that tract of land containing 40 acres being in Hancock County, GA. and on the waters of the Beaver Dam of Ogechee. Adj. Jesse Connell's land, and James Loyd's corner to Hugh's line. Land being a part of a 250 acre tract granted to HOLLAND MIDDLETON 23rd April 1789. Wit: Wm. Owsley, Seavin Maddux and Obadiah Richardson, J.P. Reg: 7th August 1798.

Abstract at Helen and Tim Marsh, compilers, Land Deed Genealogy of Hancock County, Georgia (Greenville, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press 1997), p. 145. Deed Book C, pp. 114-116

 
Dickinson, Joel Putnam (I0075)
 
2161 State of Georgia, Heard County

I, William M. Simms of the State and County above stated, being of sound mind and advancing in age, do make and ordain the following my last Will and Testament:

Item 1st. After the payment of my lawful debts it is my will that my wife Elizabeth C. Simms shall have and hold as her own during her natural life the lands whereon we now live and reside on the Chattahoochee River, said lands containing Five Hundred and Seventy five acres more or less. Also it is my will that my said wife Elizabeth C. Simms shall have, own and control as her own individual property my stock, horses, hogs, cattle, sheep, mules,
plantation tools, wagons, carts and every other thing pertaining to my farm. Also all of my household and kitchen furniture.

Item 2nd. It is my will that my wife E.C. Simms may dispose of as she may think proper one third of the household and kitchen furniture.

Item 3rd. It is my will that my wife have one thousand dollars to be paid over to her by my Executor or Executors out of the first money collected on of my estate.

Item 4th. It is my will that my daughter Carmella A. Echols and her children have one thousand dollars to be paid to her by my Executors, said thousand dollars to be controlled by my daughter C.A. Echols and she, C.A. Echols, to give such portions of said one thousand to her children as she may think proper and best, they claiming no interest on said amount bequeathed.

Item 5th. It is my will that after the death of my wife Elizabeth C. Simms that the lands on the Chattahoochie River as described in the first item of this my will and all of the lands belonging to me or my estate be sold, also
all of the property whatsoever character be sold and equally divided between my son Robert B. Simms and my daughter Carmella A. Echols and their children reserving out of the proceeds of the sales of my property; four hundred dollars for Benjamin W. Witcher and one hundred dollars for William P. Goolsby, said amounts to be paid to the said Benjamin W. Witcher and Wm. P. Goolsby by my Executors.

Item 6th. I hereby appoint my beloved wife Elizabeth C. Simms my Executrix to this my Will and for her to choose whom she may think proper to assist her in executing this my last will and testament and for her to have nothing to do with any other estate except Briton Simms Jun.r, deceased.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this Feby 9th 1874.

W.M. Simms
Witness: Ira H Mattox, J B Ware, Thos Watts

Georgia, Heard County

J B Beall, Ordinary of said County do certify that the above and foregoing is a true copy of the Last Will and Testament of William M. Simms, deceased, as proven in Common form by all the witnesses thereto and admitted and entered of record at this November Term of the Court of Ordinary of said County. Given under my hand and seal of office this 4th day of November 1878.

J.B. Beall,
Ordinary

Recorded February 4th 1896. G.A. Crain, Ordinary
 
Simms, William M. (I0706)
 
2162 State of Georgia, Indexes of Vital Records for Georgia: Deaths, 1919-1998, Gerogia, USA: Georgia Heatlh Department, Office of Vital Records, 1998 Source (S016407)
 
2163 Stephen and Charles remain in the household, both allegedly idiotic. Neighbors include William G. Crane, Mary J. Crain (the widow of Spencer C. Crain), George A. Crain, and George W. Darden. Seventeen slaves are enumerated in the schedules. Heard, Susannah (I4312)
 
2164 Stephen deserted the Franks on 2 Jun 1197. "His departure must have been enormously damaging to morale, but Stpehen caused even more harm to the expedition's prospects, and to the crusading movement as a whole." Finding Alexios in Philomelium, his report of conditions on the ground sent the emperor and his army back to Constantinople. Adela, in turn, was mortified. Blois, Etienne-Henri II de Comte de Blois (I11396)
 
2165 Stone reads:
Frances
The Wife Of
Thomas Hosmer
Aged 73 years 
Bushnell, Frances (I17355)
 
2166 Subj: Dickinson/Simms
Date: 9/17/2002 11:23:05 PM Central Standard Time

> I have a list of the children of Robert and Sarah Simms, although I don't know
> how accurate my information is. I have not gone through any Coweta County
> census materials. I welcome more information on the Simms.

John,

I saw the above post on one of the internet sites tonight. I am doing
some research on my husband's Tilley family. I believe that the Sarah
"Sallie" Simms who married George Tilley in Hancock Co. GA is one of the
children in this family. I wonder if you would share the names you have
with me. I am just now beginning this generation of ancestors and have
found a good bit of info on different sites, but have no idea how correct
any of it is.

My husband's branch of the Tilley family came to Cherokee Co. TX about 1850
and remained there. Thanks. . . Sue Clark

====================================================================================

Subj: Re: Dickinson/Simms
Date: 9/19/2002 10:24:40 PM Central Standard Time

John,

Thank you so much for sending your info to me. Normally, I have a hard
time reading attachments because I use a Macintosh, but yours came out
perfectly. I pretty much have the same children, but my list was given to
me some years ago, and I am just now trying to do the research to prove some
of the info that I have. My list shows:
John, Susan, Elizabeth, Mary (Polly), Sarah (Sallie), Penelope, Ann,
Brittain and Patience. "Polly" is usually a nickname for Mary and "Sally"
for Sarah. I didn't have many birthdates on the list that I had. My
husband's Tilley line came through George and Sallie Simms Tilley's son,
Josiah, and his wife, Margaret Ann Foster.

I've been going through sites on the internet looking for Simms and
Dickinson information the past few days. That has really been interesting.
I've not done any research in North Carolina before, and the changing names
of counties were almost as confusing as the relationships you spoke of in
one of your posts. I'm not sure if there were three generations of Robert
Simms or two. . . I found quite a few mentions of Robert (Jr. if there is a
Sr. and Robert III) in Dobbs and Wayne Co. records. Also found John and
Rebecca Dickinson's wills. That was really a find!

Thanks again for your help!

Sue Clark
jsclarktx@earthlink.net

====================================================================================

Subj: Simms/Dickinson
Date: 9/21/2002 11:19:37 AM Central Standard Time

John,

I can't believe what treasure you have sent me . . . and I thought
running across a Will on one of the internet sites was a real find! I've
been working on family history for 20 years and never have I been so
lucky!!! Thank you so much . . .

As I said before, the little bit of research I had on Sallie Simms and
George Tilley was done probably 40 years ago by someone who died long ago,
and I have just now begun trying to prove some of it because no sources were
given. The only thing I can add is:

> Name: Sarah "Sallie" SIMMS
>
> Birth: ca 1790
> Death: 2 Jun 1846 Taliaferro Co. GA Age: 56
> Father: Robert SIMMS III (1760-1815)
> Mother: Sarah DICKINSON (1762-1850)
>
> Misc. Notes
> Lisa Wilson is a descendant of Susan Ann and Benjamin Edwards.

> 1: George TILLEY
> Birth: bef 1790
> Death: 4 Jul 1858 Taliaferro Co. GA Age: 68
> Father: Michael TILLEY (~1750-) (Prospect only! Not proven)
> Mother: Unknown
>
> Misc. Notes
> A marriage record for George Tilley and Sallie Sims for 16 Dec 1819 in Hancock
> Co. GA. George owned a mill of some kind with a family named Veazey. (A
> George Tilley imported slaves in Wilkes Co. in Mar. 1818. Also George Tilley
> on 1820 Wilkes Co. GA census. Wilkes Co. was one of the original GA counties
> and organized in 1777. Hancock was organized in 1793 and Taliaferro in 1825.
> Taliaferro was taken from Green, HANCOCK, Oglethorpe, Warren, and WILKES
> counties.)
>
> Marriage: 16 Dec 1819 Hancock Co. GA
> Children: Susan Ann (1820-1858) (Died in Pike/Bullock Co. AL)
> James (Died as Infant) (1822-)
> Josiah (1824-1896) (Died in Cherokee Co. TX)
> John Mitchell (1826-)
> Britton Simms (1829-1896) (Died in Cherokee Co. TX)
> Robert (1832-1888)
> Virginia (1833-)
> Sarah Frances (1835-)

I am hesitant to "look a gift-horse in the mouth," but I seem to have lost
page 4 of what you sent either in the transmit or the expansion. . . that
would be persons #36-43. Person #35 is Mary Emily Simms, and person #44 is
Robert Jones, born 1820 in Hancock Co. GA. There is a page of notes between
these two persons.

Thanks again a 1000 times over. . . Sue Clark

====================================================================================

Subj: Various
Date: 9/21/2002 12:59:53 PM Central Standard Time

John, a couple of other things I had meant to mention this morning. . . my
husband's last name is Clark, but he was reared by his aunt and uncle, the
Tilley family, after his parents divorced when he was 4 years old.

His Tilley family line is:

George and Sallie Tilley
Josiah and Margaret Ann Foster Tilley
George and Virginia Nelson Tilley
Harry Park "Pat" Tilley
Frank Gordon Tilley (my husband's uncle)

Pat Tilley had one of the first Coca-Cola bottling franchises in TX, buying
his in 1904 in Jacksonville, Cherokee Co. TX. It remained in the Tilley
family until just a few years ago when Coca-Cola bought it back and closed
it after about a year. So, the Tilley family did continue a GA connection
through the years. . . Sue C
 
Tilley, George (I0426)
 
2167 Subj: Francis Marion Hubbird
Date: 11/16/2002 8:09:00 PM Central Standard Time
From: jackwatt@highstream.net
To: jdickin385@aol.com
Sent from the Internet (Details)

Hello

I just saw your message on the Ancestry message board. My maternal grandmother was the daughter of Francis Marion Hubbird. Francis was the child of Demaris and Charles Hubbird.

I found Francis Marion listed with his parents on the 1850 Baldwin County Alabama Census. At that time Charles and Demaris had five children. He was listed as Marion F. and he was age 7. Others siblings listed with him were: Mary F. age 9, Martha C. age 5, Charles R. age 2, and Joseph age 1. I know they had more children later and a lot!

My great grandmother who married F.M. Hubbird was named Mary Etta Stone Perry. She first married a man named S.A. Douglas Perry and he was thrown from a horse and killed shortly after their marriage. She second married F.M Hubbird in 1897 and their marriage is recorded at the Mobile County court house ( five years after my maternal grandmother was born). My great-grandmother Mary Etta and F.M. Hubbird divorced and my grandmother always carried the name Perry, and Mary Etta returned to her former spouses name as well. This was a deep dark secret and I didn't find out about the Hubbird's until my 88 year old mother died in 2000. My mom had always said that her mother's grandmother was named "Bryars." And now I understand why she said that as it was Demaris' maiden name and I wasn't suppose to know about the Hubbird part. They were ashamed of my great-grandmother Mary Etta's divorce and other things as well. My elderly aunt finally told me the truth about the Hubbird family and I was totally amazed! I just kept hitting a road block in researching my family. My aunt said she felt like a traitor to her sister ( my mother) to divulge the long kept secret. My auntie use to visit her grandfather, Francis Marion Hubbird when she was a child with her mother Millie. F.M. Hubbird also gave my grandmother Millie some land in Escambia County after her parent's divorced.

I found F.M. Hubbird on the 1920 Gonzales Florida Census ,age 75 remarried to Maude age 45. They had several children together. Mary Etta Perry Hubbird never remarried but had another child after their divorce by whom I don't know but there is great speculation about that and some family stories.

I recently found out some amazing things about F.M. Hubbird and if you would like I can share. I have a business letter written by him too. Are you in contact with Leon Weekley who is also researching this family?

Sorry I was so long winded. I desperately want to find out more about this man who was my great grandfather.

Sincerely
Linda K. Watt

* * * *

Subj: Re: Francis Marion Hubbird
Date: 11/16/2002 11:57:22 PM Central Standard Time
From: jackwatt@highstream.net
To: JDickin385@aol.com
Sent from the Internet (Details)

Dear John

Thank you also for your reply. I have been in contact with Joanne through Leon. What I have discovered in the past couple of days may shed some light on the mysterious great-grandfather of mine. I found Francis Marion Hubbird born 1844 in Escambia County listed with the Union Army Cavalry out of Fort Baranncas Florida. It was an amazing find for me. I have seen many Francis Marion Hubbirds listed on Ancestry com and most all were Union from way up north! Then by chance I found Marion! I found a website with a fellow named David Hartman who has co-compiled many volumes on the Civil War history of Florida. On his web page he offered to do free look-ups for descendents! I am going to forward you what he sent! It was an amazing piece of the puzzle. In particular the physical description of Francis Marion Hubbird. His daughter and myself closely resemble his physical traits described.

In addition, my great-grandmother Mary Etta Stone Perry (Hubbird) is buried at the Pine Barren church Cemetery. She is buried with the Stone family at the right corner of the cemetery facing towards the woods. There is an engravers mistake on her headstone it reads: "Mother Mary "ELLA" Perry." It should have been Etta, and I told you that there must have been a great deal of animosity towards her ex-spouse as she reverted to her late husband"s name.

My mother was born on Jack Springs Road, Atmore. All of her sisters as well as Millie their mother were from Atmore. The info I am about to send you may explain a lot of the secrecy around the Hubbird's in my family. other family names connected with us are: Stacey"s of Monroe County, Bennet, Stone, and Fowler.

Linda K. Watt

* * * *

From: "David Hartman"
To:
Sent: Friday, November 15, 2002 5:14 PM
Subject: Re: Florida 1st Cavalry Regiment - Union


Here is what I have:

Hubbard, Francis M. (b. 1844 Escambia Co.) enlisted 2/1/64 at Barrancas and deserted 5/5/65 at Barrancas. He was accused of stealing by several Alabama residents and was apprehended by Captain Cochran's Home Guard in Holmes Valley FL. The Captain confiscated his horse, gun and accoutrements and told him to report to camp. He reported to camp 6/29/65 but was reported missing the next day. He was still listed as a deserter since 5/5/65 on the last roll. He was 5'6", dark eyes & hair, fair skin. Occupation: farmer. After the war, the War Department dropped the charge of desertion and listed him as being officially discharged 5/5/65.

Does this match? Looks good to me!! Let me know!!

David

* * * *

From: jackwatt@highstream.net
To: hartmad@hotmail.com
Sent: Friday, November 15, 2002 11:37 AM
Subject: Florida 1st Cavalry Regiment - Union


Hello

I think that my great- grandfather was in the Florida 1st Cavalry. I found his name included in another Civil War Roster on-line. However he was not listed on your site. Here is his name and company:


Francis Marion Hubbird ( or Hubbard )
Florida 1st Cavalry Regiment - Union
Company A

I am from Spanish Fort, Alabama. My great grandfather has been a secret to our family and sort of an enigma my whole life. I found Francis Marion Hubbird on the 1920 Florida Federal Census age 75, so that means he was born in 1845 ( old enough to participate in the war). On the 1920 census he is married to a another woman other than my great grandmother ( they divorced). My great grandmother Mary Etta Perry ( widow ) married Francis Marion Hubbird in 1897. My grandmother, Millie Perry Hubbird, their child, was born in 1892, she was born some five years before their marriage. It was a family secret. My mother was forty years old when she had me and never shared the true identity of her grandfather.

Now I think there was more to the secret than just the birth of my grandmother before the marriage of her parents. I think it was the "Yankee/Union" part that was also a secret. The only part of their history that was shared with me is that of the name "Bryars" ( that was Francis Marion Hubbird's mother's maiden name). I recently found his mother's obituary. Basically it said that she accepted everyone regardless of their sectional beliefs or religion. I think the sectional part was North or South! Her name was Demaris Bryars Hubbird. Her husband Charles Hubbird was originally from South Carolina along with the Bryars family. I also noted that the Florida 1st Cavalry had expeditions in West Florida near Pine Barren, Milton, Barrancas Florida to name a few. The Pine Barren area of Escambia County is where my mother, grandmother and great-grandparents were from. I feel certain that this Francis Marion Hubbird must be my great grandfather. I am intrigued and want to know more!

Sincerely
Linda K. Watt
 
Hubbird, Francis Marion (I0864)
 
2168 Subj: GASPALDI-D Digest V03 #3
Date: 1/5/2003 2:03:02 AM Central Standard Time
From: GASPALDI-D-request@rootsweb.com
Reply-to: GASPALDI-L@rootsweb.com
To: GASPALDI-D@rootsweb.com

The Griffin Daily News. Griffin, Georgia, Friday Morning, May 25, 1888

Hymeneal

Last night at the residence of J.C. McFarland, T. A. Bolton was united in marriage to Miss Willie Dupree, Rev. Dr. Bradley officiating. The bride was dressed in white brocaded satin and the groom in a handsome suit of black. J. H. Bloodworth and Miss Maggie McFarland were attendants.

Mr. Bolton has been living in this city for several years, and by his gentlemanly deportment and sociability has made many friends.

Miss Willie, the fair bride, is the daughter of F.G. Dupree, living near Mt. Zion. She is one of Spalding county's fairest daughters and the groom is to be congratulated upon securing the heart and hand of such an estimable young lady as a helpmeet through life.

They go out to the residence of Mr. Dupree, the bride's father, this morning, where they will spend the day. A reception was held at the residence of Mrs. Bolton, the groom's mother, to which a few friends were invited. Refreshments were served and the crowd did them ample justice.

The happy couple start out under the most favorable circumstances, and The News joins their many friends in wishing them a long and happy life.

(Transcribed 1/4/03 Lynn Cunningham)

Note:
At Oak Hill Cemetery, Spalding County, Georgia:
Bolton, Thomas Alexander, b. 1 Jan 1859, d. 8 Jan 1941
Bolton, Willie Dupree, b. 23 Mar 1866, d. 3 May 1928

* * * *

Buried Oak Hill Cemetery, Griffin, Georgia, Lot 183, First New Section [entering first lane from 3rd Street, third row lane, seventh plot on left]. 
Bolton, Thomas Alexander (I0223)
 
2169 Subj: Hubbard/Hubbird Family
Date: 11/12/2002 10:29:47 PM Central Standard Time
From: Leonweekley
To: JDickin385

John:

Hello. My name is Leon Weekley and I'm 16 years old.

My GGG Grandmother was Rebecca Hubbard (b. abt 1807) m. Ransom Weekley (b abt 1802).

It is said Rebecca was a sister of Catherine Margarette (m. Charles Bryars) and Charles W. Hubbard (m. Demaris Bryars).

Do you happen to know who was the father of Rebecca, Catherine Margarate, and Charles W. Hubbard? I have not found his or his wife's name. I do know that their children were MOST LIKEY:

Rebecca Hubbard b. abt 1807 d. abt 1875 m. Ransom Weekley
William B. Hubbard b. March 27, 1807 d. October 12, 1876 m. Elizabe
Catherine Margarate Hubbard b. Oct. 18, 1810 d. Feb. 3, 1892 m. Charles Bryars
Joesph G. Hubbard b. April 1813 d, AFT 1900 m. Ellen
Charles W. Hubbard abt. 1816 m. Demaris Bryars

It seems that William B. Hubbird and Charles W. Hubbard changed their surname to "Hubbird"

All these children born in South Carolina. Catherine Hubbard Bryars' tombstone at Big Pine Barren Cem says she was born in Beaufort County, SC

I have a copy of the obituary of Demaris Bryars Hubbird. She died January 1892 at Williams Station, AL (Not current day Atmore, AL)

Looking forward in hearing from you,

Leon Weekley
Bay Minette, AL

* * * *

Subj: Re: Hubbard/Hubbird Family
Date: 11/12/2002 11:33:34 PM Central Standard Time
From: Leonweekley
To: JDickin385, jamckay@juno.com

John:

Thanks for the info. I lookes good.

Here is Rebecca's family:

Rebecca Hubbard married Ransom Weekley
Children:
Ann married George Dees
John Benjamin married Margaret A. Johnson
William Edgar married Caroline Flemings
Charles Ransom married Martha Jane Mitchem

My GG Grandfather was William Edgar Weekley married Caroline Flemings. Most of the Weekleys are buried near Perdido, AL

Thanks.

Leon Weekley

* * * *

1850 Federal Census Baldwin Co. ALA

LN/HN/NAME/AGE/SEX/OCC/BIRTH

18 123 123 Weekley Ransom........48 M Farmer Ala
19 123 123 Weekley Rebecca........43 F South Carolina
20 123 123 Weekley Ann................20 F Ala
21 123 123 Weekley John G...........19 M None Baldn Ala
22 123 123 Weekley Edgar.............14 M Ala
23 123 123 Weekley Charles..........10 M Ala
 
Hubbard, Rebecca (I1091)
 
2170 Subj: Re: Bryars/Hubbard/Hubbird
Date: 10/13/2002 2:29:47 PM Central Standard Time
From: Poppy333@webtv.net
To: jackwatt@highstream.net, JayByrd@knology.net, JDickin385@aol.com, jamckay@juno.com, john_irma@frontiernet.net

Hi Linda,

Nice to hear from you. Catherine Margaret Hubbird Bryars is my gggrandmother. She was a sister to Charles.

From Rootsweb World Connect Project: Whidbee, I found the following:

Charles Hubbard married Damaris Bryars

Children:

1. Aurelia Hubbard
2. Mariam Hubbard (this is how it was spelled)
3. Mary Hubbard
4. Martha Hubbard
5. Susan Hubbard
6. Viola Hubbard
7. Henry Hubbard
8. Joe Hubbard
9. Riley Hubbard

I believe your ancestors may be buried at what we call the "Bull" cemetery. It got this name from my sister's and my experience there. Our Dad told us about the Hubbird Cemetery behind a man's house. We got directions and went there, got permission from the owner to look at the cemetery. It's back of his house by a pasture. The cemetery was overgrown and very "snaky" looking. I have a snake phobia, so I could have cared less about going in there, but my sister went. It was so bad she didn't see much (some broken head stones, etc.) I didn't give her much time though - I saw this "huge" bull coming toward us and screamed for her to come on out of there. We left without accomplishing much. However, Jo Ann McKay and her mother visited there and they had a better experience than we.

I am forwarding an email from Jo Ann with information she has about some of the Hubbard Family, and am forwarding a copy of your email to other Bryars/Hubbard researchers.

I didn't find Hardy Bryars in my records. Could he have a double name and be called by a middle name? He probably is related. Where do you live?

~Helen~

* * * *

John,

Years ago Minnie Hubbird gave me the following information. I never did any research to follow up on it since I was not a direct descendant but I always thought I would if I ever had the time. Minnie's oldest daughter, Ruby, recently died. Another daughter, Marie, is still living up around Walnut Hill. I've met her but don't know her well at all. She's married to Lindy Phillips but I don't think she's involved in genealogy. At least not that I know about. Anyhow here is what I had on the Hubbird/Hubbard family.

Joseph Hubbird - wife unknown

Children:

(1) William married a Moye

Children: Ben, Sarah, Augusta, Secluda. None of them ever married. Are buried at Pineville Cemetery, Escambia County, Florida.

(2) Charles married Demaris Bryars

Children: Willie, Marion, Riley, Joseph, Henry, Susan, Zerifa, Viola

(3) Joseph married Ellen Moye

Children: James married Lina Butler; Jason married Nancy Agerton; Joseph married (1) Catherine Dees and (2) Candace Richerson

(4) Catherine Margaret married Charles Bryars

Children: James Lazarus married (1) Elizabeth Miles and (2) Malinda Dailey; Benjamin Henry married Lucretia Ellen Miles; Elizabeth married George Moye; Isabella married Thomas Hadley; Mary Catherine never married; Mildred never married; Sarah Frances married (1) Benjamin Franklin and (2) Charles McTrout.

(Note: Of course I have done research on Catherine's family. Children not given in birth order.)

(5) Caroline married ?

(6) Rebecca married Ransom Weekley

That's all I had that Minnie gave me. I did find the following on the 1880 census of Escambia County, Florida, Pct.:

Hubbird Joseph G., W, M. 66, Farmer
Hubbird, Ellen, W, F, 56, Wife

Hubbird, Joseph J., W, M, 25, Farmer
Hubbird, Catherine, W, F, 25, Wife
Hubbird, Hillary, W, M, 1, Son

Hubbird, Benjamin, W, M, 38, Farmer
Hubbird, Elizabeth, W, F, 71, Mother
Hubbird, Sarah, W, F, 41, Sister
Hubbird, Augusty, W, F, 35, Sister
Hubbird, Secluda, W, F, 30, Sister

Hubbird, James, W, M, 31, Farmer
Hubbird, Adaline, W, F, 19, Wife
Hubbird, Caldona, W, F, 1, Dau.
Butler, Mary, W, F, 14, Sister-in-law
Dees, George, W, M, 52, Farmer
Dees, Anna, W, F, Wife
Dees, Charley, W, M, 17, Son
Dees, Anna, W, F, 10, Dau.

On this same census (1880) Catherine Margaret Bryars is listed as 70 years old which will give some perspective. I don't know how correct what Minne gave me was since like I said I didn't check it out and she was giving it to me from memory. She was in her 90s at the time too. I do have some information on Viola Hubbird who married an Amos. I'll have to look it up but that is the line of Charles Hubbird. I got that information from Phil Amos who was a grandson (or great-grandson ?). He was the one who owned the Bull Cemetery. I?ll look for that list. John, for your information (Helen knows this) but Minnie Hubbird was a descendant of Lucretia Ellen Miles and Benjamin Henry Bryars and she married Fern Hubbird. I forget which line he comes through but Helen probably knows.

Jo Ann

* * * *
Subj: Re: Bryars/Hubbard/Hubbird
Date: 10/13/2002 9:20:27 PM Central Standard Time
From: jamckay@juno.com
To: Poppy333@webtv.net
CC: jackwatt@highstream.net, JayByrd@knology.net, JDickin385@aol.com, john_irma@frontiernet.net

Hi Helen,

I'm going to have to look up the information I copied from Phil Amos' Bible. I believe his mother was Viola Hubbird. I also copied the information from the tombstones in the "Bull" Cemetery and that is where Demaris and Charles are buried along with a number of their children. Williams Station was the original name for Atmore and as you remember the "Bull" Cemetery is near there. I'm not totally sure anymore if it is in Alabama or if it is in Florida--as a matter of fact it could be in that area of Baldwin County that is there near Nokomis. I'll have to ask Ozelle exactly where it is. Arthur was also with us that day we were there. Mr. Amos knew my granddaddy Miles who lived at Canoe. Since I never throw anything away I know I have that information in a notebook somewhere. It's just a matter of locating it.

Jo Ann

* * * * 
Hubbard, Catharine Margarate (I0519)
 
2171 Subj: Re: Bryars/Hubbard/Hubbird
Date: 10/14/2002 8:34:17 PM Central Standard Time


John,

The list of children on Margaret Anderson?s family group sheet for Demaris and Charles came from the 1860 Baldwin County Federal Census. Evidently there were additional children born after this. I still haven?t located the information I copied from the Bible of Phil Amos or from the Bull? Cemetery but I?ll continue to look for it. At the time I talked to Margaret Anderson back in the late 1980s or early 1990s she wasn?t one hundred percent sure Demaris was the daughter of Lazarus, Jr. but was working on that theory because she had not been able to place her in any other Bryars family. Margaret never intended for people to take her information as completely accurate. It was what she?d been able to compile from various sources and some of it was still not proven. It was more or less a working copy that she sent to as many Bryars? descendants as she could locate hoping that they?d be able to give her additions, corrections, etc.


I think I?m going to go to the Library tomorrow either in Foley or Pensacola and I?ll see what Charles Bryant has on the Hubbirds/Hubbards. However, as Helen, Jay, and John B. can tell you I don?t place much reliance on his information. In particular I have found many errors in the family section and evidently other people have as well because a number of changes have been penciled in but I don?t know if those are correct either since I haven?t checked them out. My problem with his family section is that he took stories from what people told him (nothing wrong with that) but he does not say where the information came from so there?s no way to check it for accuracy. I?ve been burned so many times in the past by totally wrong information given to me that I don?t trust anything I can?t check out with other records.

Jo Ann

* * * *
Subj: Re: Bryars/Hubbard/Hubbird
Date: 10/15/2002 9:54:50 AM Central Standard Time
From: Poppy333@webtv.net

Linda,

There is a Hubbird Cemetery in the Stockton area, but that's not the one. As Jo Ann said, the "Bull" cemetery is in the Atmore area. I remember we drove south of Atmore (on 97) and turned right. In the back of my mind are the names "Rock Creek Road" or "Rock Bridge Road". Does that sound familiar to you, Jo Ann? I guess you could check the name Amos in the Atmore phone book.

I do have Thomas Savage Bryars, Sr. in my records. It needs to be updated, because I don't have "Hardy". This is the information I have:

Thomas Savage Bryars, Sr was born Nov 6, 1894 in Baldwin County, Alabama and died Jan 8, 1944 in Mobile, Alabama. He married Naoma Ernestine Carter, Sep 17, 1917 in Stockton, Al. She was born Nov 19, 1899 in Alabama and died Feb 9, 1985. Both buried in Latham Methodist Cemetery, Latham, Al.

Children:

1. Infant b 1918, d 1918, buried in Richerson Cemetery, Stockton, Al

2. Thomas Savage Bryars, Jr., b 1920, d. Jan 22, 1990, Escambia County, Fl. Married Lorena McMillian. He was a Captain (USAR) in the field artillery during WW11. Buried in Latham Methodist Cemetery.

Sure would like updates and/or corrections.

Jay Byrd and I live in Montgomery.

Thanks for the Obit.

~Helen~

 
Hubbird, Charles W (I0727)
 
2172 Subj: Re: Francis M. Miles
Date: 5/5/2003 6:25:24 AM Central Standard Time
From: Rockycreekfarm@bellsouth.net
To: JDickin385@aol.com

Mr Dickinson

Thank you for this information, which does make my connection a possibility.

My Grandmother, Mary Ann was born 8-2-1861, her marriage license says Mary Ann M. White, to George Collier Hall.

Mary Anns Mother, Zillian is buried next to her in Pleasant Grove Church Cemetery, Bluff Springs, Florida. Can you tell me if this is in the area of your family???

The name Zillian could have been the lazy way of saying Zillie Ann.

I have been searching for several years and I think what has thrown me off is Mary Anns last name White. and Zillians husband last name Miles. I do not know where Francis Miles is buried.

Is there anything else about the family you can tell me that might help.

Thank you for answering my message

Nina Jones 
Hammac, Marzilla Ann (I0580)
 
2173 Subj: Spalding Co. Marriage -- Taylor & Stewart
Date: 1/5/2003 2:23:43 PM Central Standard Time
From: VCJFreeman
To: GASPALDI-L@rootsweb.com, JDickin385

John --

I believe I may have some more on Dr. Robert Hope Taylor. His family has resided in Coweta Co GA as early as the 1850 Census and were members of Mt Pilgrim Lutheran Church in Haralson, Coweta Co., GA -- not far from the Spalding & Meriwether county lines. Very near Line Creek.

Descendants of Joel P. Taylor, Dr.

Joel P. Taylor, Dr. b: 26 Jul 1824 in Lexington District, South Carolina d: 2 May 1897 Burial: Mt. Pilgrim Lutheran Cemetery, Haralson, Coweta Co., Georgia
+Rebecca I. Hodnett b: 17 Feb 1831 in Newton Co., Georgia m: 1853 d: 17 Mar 1890 Burial: Mt. Pilgrim Lutheran Cemetery, Haralson, Coweta Co., Georgia Father: John Hodnett, Maj. Mother: Elizabeth Tigner

~ 2 Louis Degas Taylor b: 16 Jul 1854 in Coweta Co., Georgia d: 19 May 1870 Burial: Mt. Pilgrim Lutheran Cemetery, Haralson, Coweta Co., Georgia

>> ~ 2 Robert Hope Taylor, Dr. b: 3 Aug 1857 in Coweta Co., Georgia d: 11 Mar 1913 Burial: Mt. Pilgrim Lutheran Cemetery, Haralson, Coweta Co., Georgia
~~ +Annie Stewart m: 18 Sep 1885 in Spalding Co., Georgia Father: Mothe

~ 2 William H. Taylor b: Abt 1860 in Coweta Co., Georgia
~~ +M. L. ?_______ Father: Mother:
~~~~ 3 Martha Rebecca Taylor b: 19 Nov 1901 d: 1 Jul 1902 Burial: Mt. Pilgrim Lutheran Cemetery, Haralson, Coweta Co., Georgia

~ 2 Infant Daughter Taylor b: 1865 in Coweta Co., Georgia d: 1865 in Coweta Co., Georgia Burial: Mt. Pilgrim Lutheran Cemetery, Haralson, Coweta Co., Georgia

~ 2 Mary R. Taylor b: Abt 1868 in Coweta Co., Georgia

~ 2 Sallie P. Taylor b: Abt 1874 in Coweta Co., Georgia


Valerie (Johnson) Freeman
Tustin, California 
Taylor, Dr. Robert Hope (I1123)
 
2174 Sulfur Springs Gazette

MELSON, MARTHA, MRS. - Died at the home of her son, Crogen Melson, on June 27, 1909, after suffering for a long time with cancer of the stomach. Services were held by Revs. E. D. Gaddy and H.H. Purcell, and her remains were laid to rest in the Woodland cemetery.
 
Ransom, Martha Jane (I1331)
 
2175 Summarily executed for treason by Richard, duke of Gloucester. Hastings, to that point, was Gloucester's trusted lieutenant.  Hastings, William 1st Baron Hastings, KG (I11209)
 
2176 Survivor of the Ft. Mims massacre. Lost a finger on his left hand. Steadham, Edward (I9031)
 
2177 Susan Cobb Milton Atkinson
1860 - 1942

Susan Cobb Milton Atkinson saw the need for and worked to establish the first state-supported college for women in Georgia. She managed the campaign that made her husband Governor of Georgia. Then, widowed at forty-one, she went into the insurance business to support her six children.

Susan Atkinson worked the centers of power where important men spoke of her as “a tiny little lady.” Life-portraits, however, reveal an energy and determination that belie such a patronizing description.

She was born in Florida, about 1860, into a family long associated with politics and influence. Her grandfather had been Governor of Florida; her great-grandfather had been in the Continental Congress of 1789, where he received two votes to be the first President of the United States.

Growing up in the poverty of the Civil War and Reconstruction years, she was acutely mindful of the plight of southern women, few of whom could afford tuition at the private colleges, the sole sources of higher education. Without training, heavy farm labor was the only way for them to earn a living.

Susan received her higher education at the Lucy Cobb Institute for Ladies in Athens where she was courted by a young law student, William Yates Atkinson of Coweta County. Soon after he received his Law Degree and passed the Bar, they married and settled in Newnan. He was an energetic young person with political ambitions. He quickly became County Solicitor and then was elected to the General Assembly. In a few more years he was Speaker of the House.

During this speedy rise, Susan Atkinson kept reminding her husband of the plight of Georgia women, pushing him to campaign for a state college for women. The decisive moment came one afternoon when they were riding through the country in a carriage and caught sight of two young women chopping cotton. Embarrassed at being seen doing such menial work the women pulled their bonnets over their faces and cried. Susan wanted a place for such young women to learn industrial and domestic arts, and to become teachers. The school could be practical, requiring students to prepare their own food and wash their own dishes, but it would be an opportunity to learn.

She persuaded her husband to present a bill to this effect to the House of Representatives in 1888, but the time was not ripe. Georgia Tech had just opened, and the new State Capitol had just been completed. The bill was defeated. But the Atkinsons returned the very next year. This time Susan typed copies of a petition and sent at least two to women in every county in the state. When William Atkinson presented his second bill to the House, it was accompanied by sheaves of petitions with thousands of signatures. And it passed.

In the State Senate there was a bitter floor-fight over the site of the new college before Milledgeville was chosen. The cornerstone was laid in 1890; the Governor appointed William Yates Atkinson Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and named Susan Atkinson President of the Board of Visitors, a position she was to hold for many years. A few years later a new dormitory was named for them. Today the Atkinson Building is the School of Business. The college was first called Georgia Normal and Industrial College, then became Georgia State College for Women, and is now Georgia College & State University.

The next challenge undertaken by Susan Atkinson was to get her husband elected Governor of Georgia. He was very young and his opponent was a popular Confederate war-hero. Still William Atkinson won by a landslide and won re-election two years later.

A contemporary writer wrote that the new Governor’s wife had never been a “women’s rights woman. She…has clamored for no higher or holier right than to be a grand wife and mother.” Yet “this retiring woman took the reigns (sic) of her husband’s campaign and…directed…the most brilliant political victory in Georgia since the war…When she goes with her gentle tread across the portals of Georgia’s executive mansion, she will carry a sweet and gracious influence that will make her first lady in the hearts of the people…”

Soon after the turn of the century, William Atkinson died an untimely death, leaving Susan with six children to support. She promptly went into the insurance business in Newnan, where she competed successfully. Always ahead of her time, in 1905 she bought a red Maxwell automobile. She coveted the job of Postmaster, so she went to Washington, obtained an interview with President Theodore Roosevelt, and talked him into giving it to her. She held this job until 1928.

Susan Atkinson continued to serve Georgia College for the remainder of her long life. In 1940, at the age of 80, she flew to Milledgeville for the 50th anniversary of the college’s founding. She was met at the local airport by a Victorian carriage and rode through the streets where students and townspeople cheered. The horses got nervous and ran away, but it didn’t faze her. She went on waving graciously to the crowd as she hurtled past, and later, with unruffled dignity, assumed her seat at the ceremonies.

Susan Atkinson was a Georgia Woman of Achievement.

Georgia Women of Achievement
Fifth Induction Ceremony
Atlanta, Georgia
March 21, 1996
 
Milton, Susan Cobb (I1223)
 
2178 Susan was Mary's given middle name; however, it was changed to Noailles with consent of her parents.



 
Murfree, Mary Noailles (I4529)
 
2179 Susannah Heard Darden was named an administrator of the James Darden estate, along with John Heard, son of Gov. Stephen Heard of Elbert County. The estate was sold, 24 April 1802. Paternal grandfather, George Darden, Sr., made provision for his three grandchildren by gift of two slaves, 26 September 1803. George Crain was an administrator by 1805. Heard, Susannah (I4312)
 
2180 Susannah survived the assault on Ft. Mimms. Writing years later to historian T. H. Ball, Charles Weatherford remarked on her part in the event: "The aunt of whom I have spoken as being a refugee in Fort Mims at the time of the massacre was Mrs. Susan Hatterway (nee Stiggins) who hated Billy Weatherford with a thorough hatred. My aunt's husband was killed early in the fight. She had no children. And when she saw that the fort would be reduced to ashes she took hold of a little white girl, Elizabeth Randon, with one hand, and a negro girl named Lizzie, with the other, and said to them, 'Let us go out and be killed together.' But to her surprise she saw one of the busy and bloody warriors beckon her to him. On approaching she recognized him. It was Iffa Tustunnaga, meaning Dog Warrior. He took her prisoner with the two children. He took them to Pensacola, and gave them over to some of their friends, where they remained until the war closed. When they returned to their homes in Alabama. Soon after the close of the war my aunt married Absalom Sizemore. She died near Mount Pleasant in 1865."  Stiggins, Susannah (I5728)
 
2181 Swidnica, Swidnica, Poland of Austria, Agnes Duchess of Schweidnitz (I16021)
 
2182 Swidnica, Swidnica, Poland of Austria, Agnes Duchess of Schweidnitz (I16021)
 
2183 Swift, Jonathan 1667-1745, dean of St. Patrick's and satirist, son of Jonathan Swift, by Abigail (Erick) of Leicester, was born at 7 Hoey's Court, Dublin, on 30 Nov. 1667 (a drawing of the house, now destroyed, is in Wilde's Closing Years of Swift's Life, p. 89). The elder Jonathan was a younger son of Thomas Swift, vicar of Goodrich, near Ross, by Elizabeth (Dryden), niece of Sir Erasmus, the grandfather of John, Dryden. Thomas Swift descended from a Yorkshire family, one of whom, Barnham, called Cavaliero Swifte, of an elder branch, was created Lord Carlingford in 1627 (for pedigrees of the Swift family see Monck Mason's St. Patrick's, pp. 225-6). The younger branch had settled at Canterbury. Thomas inherited from his mother a small estate at Goodrich, took orders, and was distinguished for his loyalty during the civil war; he subscribed money to the king, and invented warlike contrivances for the annoyance of the roundheads. When the roundheads gained the upper hand he naturally had to go through many troubles, which are recorded in Mercurius Rusticus (1685; reprinted in Monck Mason, p. 228). He died in 1658. He had ten sons and four daughters. The second son, Thomas, became a clergyman, married the daughter of Sir William D'Avenant [qv.], and was father of another Thomas (1666-1752), who became rector of Puttenham, Surrey. The eldest son, Godwin, was a barrister of Gray's Inn; he was four times married, and his wives, except the second, were heiresses. His first wife was connected with the Ormonde family; his third was daughter of Richard Deane [qv.], the regicide admiral; and the fourth a sister of Sir John Mead, an Irish lawyer, described in Mrs. Pilkington's Memoirs. Upon the Restoration, Godwin went to Ireland, where he was made attorney-general for the palatinate of Tipperary by the first Duke of Ormonde, lord-lieutenant from 1662 to 1664; he left fifteen sons and four daughters. He was a little too dexterous in the subtle parts of the law, according to his nephew Jonathan, and in later years lost much of his fortune by rash speculations. He prospered, however, for some time, and four of his brothers followed him to Ireland.

Of these, Jonathan (the father of the satirist) became a member of the King's Inns, Dublin, and was appointed steward of the society on 25 Jan. 1665-6. Upon his marriage, a short time before, he had been able to settle an annuity of 20l. upon his wife. He died a little more than a year after his appointment, leaving her with an infant daughter Jane. Soon after the birth of Jonathan, seven months later, Abigail went to her family at Leicester. The child was left with a nurse, who became so fond of him that she took him with her when she had to return to her native place, Whitehaven, Cumberland. His mother was afraid to venture a second voyage, and he was kept nearly three years at Whitehaven. There his nurse taught him so well that at three years old he could read any part of the Bible. He was then sent back to Dublin. Shortly afterwards his mother settled at Leicester, leaving him in Ireland, where his uncle Godwin took charge of him. He was sent at the age of six to the grammar school of Kilkenny. Congreve, two years his junior, was a schoolfellow, and afterwards a friend; but nothing is known of Swift at this time beyond a trifling anecdote or two. On 24 April 1682 he was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, his cousin Thomas being entered on the same day. Thomas became a scholar in May 1684; but Jonathan was never elected. Swift's own account of his college career is that he was depressed by the ill-treatment of his nearest relations, and too much neglected his academic studies, for some parts of which he had no great relish by nature. He read history and poetry, and lived with great regularity; but was stopped of his degree for dulness and insufficiency, and at last admitted in a manner little to his credit, which is called in that college speciali gratia. In a college roll of the Easter term, 1685 (facsimile in Forster's Life of Swift, p. 38), he is marked bene for Greek and Latin, male for philosophy, and negligenter for theology. He had not done well enough, it appears, to be allowed one of the twelve terms necessary for admission to the exercise of the Bachelor of Arts degree. This however, according to custom, was granted to him by the special grace, and he graduated at the regular date, February 1685-6. Swift in later years told Mrs. Pilkington, and his biographers, Deane Swift and Sheridan, that he had really been a dunce. Sheridan (p. 5) also declares that Swift when in his last years repeated the exact arguments used in his degree exercise. He had been disgusted with the scholastic logic still taught at Dublin, and thought that he could reason as well without using the proper syllogistic forms. This dislike was characteristic of Swift's whole turn of thought, and probably explains in what sense we are to take the statement that he was a dunce, which, as Mrs. Pilkington observes, is very surprising if true.

Swift continued his residence after taking the Bachelor of Arts degree. He became irregular in his conduct. According to Dr. Barrett (Essay, pp. 13, 14), he was constantly fined and censured for non-attendance at chapel and at the nightly roll-call. He was publicly censured for such offences (16 March 1687) with his cousin Thomas; and again (30 Nov. 1688) for insolence to the junior dean (Barrett's statements are sufficiently clear, though criticised by Forster, p. 34). Samuel Richardson (to Lady Bradshaigh, 22 April 1752) gives a story that Swift had been expelled from Dublin on account of an oration as terræ filius. One Jones, a contemporary, was actually punished, though not expelled, for such an oration in 1688. Barrett tried to make out that Swift was an accomplice in this wretched performance, which has accordingly been printed in his Works. The arguments, however, both from external and internal evidence, establish at the outside a bare possibility. Swift attributes his recklessness to the neglect of his relations. Was it not your uncle Godwin who educated you? he was asked. Yes, said Swift, he gave me the education of a dog. Then, was the reply, you have not the gratitude of a dog (Scott on the authority of Theophilus Swift). Godwin was at this period losing money (Deane Swift, pp. 41, 21), and in 1688 fell into a lethargy. Swift was apparently helped by his other uncles?William, whom he calls the best of his relations (to William Swift on 29 Nov. 1692), and Adam. Godwin's son Willoughby, settled in an English factory at Lisbon, sent him a present at a moment when he was almost in despair, and from that time, he says, he learnt to be a better economist (Deane Swift, p. 54). Swift, however, seems to have retained little regard for his family (ib. p. 353), and it is probable that their generosity was so administered as to hurt his pride. A desire for independence became a passion with him.

The troubles which followed the expulsion of James II forced Swift to leave Dublin. He retired to his mother's house at Leicester. She was a cheerful frugal woman, who thought herself rich and happy on 20l. a year. She had a touch of humour, and amused herself, on a visit to Dublin in later years, by passing off her son to her landlady as a lover who had to visit her secretly. Swift was always a good son, and deeply affected by her death (24 April 1710). Mrs. Swift was now alarmed by her son's attentions to a certain Betty Jones. He explained to a friend that he despised the Leicester people as wretched fools, and that prudence and a cold temper prevented any thoughts of marriage. A person of great honour in Ireland had told him that his mind was like a conjured spirit which would do mischief if I did not give it employment. He had therefore permitted himself these little distractions (to Kendall, 11 Feb. 16 Feb. 1691-2).

Sir William Temple, the statesman, was about this time retiring from Sheen to Moor Park, near Farnham in Surrey. Temple and his father had known Godwin Swift, and Lady Temple, it is said, was related to Swift's mother. Temple now took Swift into his family. He was, according to an untrustworthy report (Richardson to Lady Bradshaigh, quoting John, nephew of Sir W. Temple), to have 20l. a year and his board, and was not allowed to sit at table with his employer. He was by this time suffering from attacks of giddiness, attributed by himself to a surfeit of fruit. Physicians, he says, weakly imagined that his native air might be beneficial. On 28 May 1690, in any case, Temple recommended him to Sir Robert Southwell (1635-1702) [qv.], who had been appointed secretary of state for Ireland, and was to accompany William III on his expedition from England (Letter first published in Cunningham's edition of Johnson's Lives, iii. 160). Temple says that Swift knew Latin and Greek, some French, wrote a good hand, and was honest and diligent. He had kept Temple's accounts, served as amanuensis, and might wait on Southwell as a gentleman, act as clerk, or be appointed to a fellowship at Trinity College. Nothing came of this; but Swift was in Ireland in 1691, whence he returned in the autumn, and, after visiting Leicester, was again at Moor Park in February 1691-2. He was now thinking of taking orders. He was admitted in June to the Bachelor of Arts degree at Oxford on the strength of testimonials from Dublin, and on 5 July became M.A. as a member of Hart Hall. In November he writes that he is not to take orders until the king fulfils a promise to Temple of giving him a prebend. Temple is less forward than could be wished, finding the value of Swift's services to himself. Temple showed his rising estimate of Swift by introducing him to William III, who offered, it is said, to give the young man a troop of horse, and taught him how to cut asparagus (Deane Swift, p. 108; and see Faulkner's story in Scott, p. 29). In the spring of 1693 Temple sent Swift to William to persuade the king to consent to the bill for triennial parliaments. William's refusal to be convinced was, he says, the first incident that helped to cure him of vanity.

Swift had already been trying his hand at literature. He wrote pindarics after the fashion of Cowley, one of which (dated 1691-2) appeared in the ?Athenian Mercury? of the eccentric John Dunton [q.v.], and is said by Johnson to have provoked Dryden's contemptuous remark, ?Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet.? Swift gave up pindarics; and two later epistles¾one to Congreve, and one to Temple upon his recovery from an illness¾begin to show genuine satirical power. He was becoming restless and doubtful as to his prospects. He had, he says, ?a scruple of entering into the church merely for support;? but Temple, who held the sinecure office of master of the rolls in Ireland, having offered him ?an employ of about 120l. a year? in that office, Swift thought his scruple removed, and returned to Ireland, where he was ordained deacon by Moreton, bishop of Kildare, on 28 Oct. 1694, and priest on 13 Jan. 1694-5 (Craik, p. 48 n.). Whatever the force of the scruples, Swift had become indignant at Temple's slowness in procuring him preferment (to Deane Swift, 3 June 1694). Temple was ?extremely angry? at his departure in May. When Swift reached Ireland, he found that the bishops demanded some testimonial as to his conduct during his stay in England, and he was forced to make an application to Temple (6 Oct. 1694) in sufficiently humiliating terms (the original letter in Swift's autograph is in the Rowfant Library). Temple gave the necessary document, and Swift had enough interest to obtain from Lord Capel, then lord-deputy, the prebend of Kilroot, near Belfast, worth about 100l. a year. A preposterous story of a criminal assault upon a farmer's daughter, discussed by some writers upon Swift, originated, as Scott shows, in the blunders of a lunatic. Swift carried on a flirtation with a Miss Jane Waring (?Varina?) of Belfast, sister of an old college friend. On 29 May 1696 he wrote her a letter full of extravagant protestations, offering to give up his prospects for her sake, or, if she will wait for him, to ?push his advancement? in England till he is in a position to marry her. Temple had been making fresh promises to induce him to return; and Swift accordingly went back to Moor Park in May 1696. He left John Winder in charge of his prebend, which in the course of the next year he resolved to resign. He obtained the succession to Kilroot for his friend Winder, a fact which was the foundation of a story told by Sheridan (p. 19) to prove his romantic benevolence. A letter to Winder (Forster, p. 84) shows that he had entertained hopes of patronage which were ruined by the fall of Lord Sunderland, and that he was being consulted in some political intrigues.

Swift's relation to Temple had completely changed its character. Temple's age and previous history entitled him to the respect of a young man who depended upon his patronage; but he had sufficiently shown his need of Swift's services, and now treated him as a friend. Swift employed himself in preparing Temple's letters and memoirs for publication (Swift's letter in Courtenay's Sir W. Temple, ii. 243). Swift had also time for a great deal of reading, chiefly classical and historical (see Craik, pp. 56, 57 n.). He spent ten hours a day in study according to Deane Swift (p. 271), or eight according to Delany (p. 50), and now wrote the first of his books which became famous. Temple had in 1692 published his essay upon ancient and modern learning, which transplanted to England a controversy begun in France by Fontenelle. William Wotton [q.v.] had replied by ?Reflections? in 1694; and incidental points had started the famous controversy between Bentley and Charles Boyle [q.v.], supported by the wits of Christ Church. Swift hereupon wrote his prose mock heroic, ?The Battle of the Books,? in which Bentley and Wotton, as the representatives of modern pedantry, are transfixed by Boyle in a suit of armour given him by the gods as a representative of ?the two noblest of things, sweetness and light.? Wotton accused Swift of plagiarism from a French book by François de Callières (not ?Coutrey,? as Scott says; see Craik, p. 71). There are slight resemblances which suggest that Swift may have seen the book, though his denial implies that, if so, he had forgotten it. The book remained in manuscript until its publication in 1704, with a greater satire, the ?Tale of a Tub.? According to Deane Swift (p. 60) the ?Tale of a Tub? was revised by Temple. Deane Swift also says (p. 31) that a sketch had been seen by Waring when Swift was still at Trinity College. The report, if it had any foundation, probably referred to the later period when Waring met Swift at Kilroot. In any case, it was finished early in 1697, and circulated in manuscript with the ?Battle of the Books.? Johnson said to Boswell (24 March 1775) that the book had ?such a swarm of thoughts, so much of nature, and vigour, and life,? that Swift could not have written it. The inference only expresses Johnson's prejudice; and the authorship, never seriously doubted, was assumed by Swift in a letter to his publisher Tooke (29 June 1710). The power of the satire, which anticipates Carlyle's clothes philosophy as a general denunciation of shams and pedantry, is indisputable. The contemptuous ridicule of theological pedantry in particular produced very natural suspicions of Swift's orthodoxy. The ridicule which he directs against papists and dissenters was only too applicable to Christianity in general. For the present, however, the book was known only to Temple's circle. In 1710 Swift prefixed an anonymous ?Apology? to a fifth edition. Curll, in a ?Key,? had insinuated that Thomas Swift, Jonathan's cousin, who had been chaplain at Moor Park, was the chief author. Wotton, in his ?Defence? of his ?Reflections,? also calls Thomas the editor. Swift, in writing to his publisher Tooke, makes some contemptuous references to his ?little parson cousin,? whom he guesses to have been an accomplice in this.

While at Moor Park Swift made occasional excursions to Leicester and elsewhere. He was fond of walking, and used, it is said, to interrupt his studies by running up a hill and back, half a mile in six minutes (Deane Swift, p. 272). He constantly preached the duty of exercise to his friends. He made some of his expeditions on foot, and liked to put up at wayside inns where ?lodgings for a penny? were advertised, and to enjoy the rough talk of wagoners and hostlers (Orrery, p. 34; Delany, p. 72). He showed his love of Moor Park Gardens by afterwards imitating them on a small scale in Ireland. The great charm of Moor Park, however, was of a different kind. Esther Johnson (1681-1728), born at Richmond, Surrey, on 13 March 1680-1 (Richmond Register), was the daughter of a merchant who died young. Her mother became the companion of Lady Giffard, sister of Temple, who, as a widow, went to live with her brother. The Johnsons also became inmates of the family. A writer in the ?Gentleman's Magazine? for November 1757 asserts that both Esther and Swift were Temple's natural children. The statement as to Swift is all but demonstrably false, and the other a gratuitous guess. The Rev. James Hay has tried to revive this hypothesis in ?Swift, the Mystery of his Life and Love,? 1891. Swift during his first stay at Moor Park took some part in Esther's early education, which seems to have been imperfect enough. When he returned in 1696 she had got over an early delicacy, was one of the most beautiful, graceful, and agreeable ?young women in London, only a little too fat.? Her ?hair was blacker than a raven, and every feature of her face in perfection? (?On the death of Mrs. Johnson?). Another member of the household was Rebecca Dingley, who was in some way related to the Temple family.

Sir William Temple died on 26 Jan. 1698-9, and with him, as Swift noted at the time, died ?all that was good and amiable among mankind.? He left 100l. to Swift, and a lease of some lands in Ireland to Esther Johnson (Will in Courtenay's Temple, ii. 484-6). To Swift he also left the trust and profit of publishing his posthumous writings. Five volumes appeared in 1700, 1703, and 1709, for one of which Swift received 40l. (a presentation copy to Archbishop Marsh, with Swift's autograph, is now in Marsh's library, Dublin). The last volume, containing a ?third part? of Temple's ?Memoirs,? provoked an angry correspondence with Lady Giffard, who charged him with printing against Temple's wishes and from an ?unfaithful copy.? Swift defended himself successfully (see Courtenay, ii. 242-8; Forster, p. 99), but was alienated from the family. His hopes of preferment vanished, and he long afterwards declared that he owed no obligation to Temple, at ?whose death he was? as far to ?seek as ever? (to Palmerston, 29 Jan. 1725-6). In the ?Journal to Stella? there are various reminiscences of the days in which he had been treated ?like a schoolboy? and felt his dependence painful. He calls Temple, however, ?a man of sense and virtue? (notes on Burnet, ap. Scott's Swift, xii. 206), and praises him warmly in a memorandum printed in Scott's ?Life.? It was not Temple's fault, Swift admitted, that nothing had come of the connection. Temple had obtained a promise from the king of a prebend at Canterbury or Westminster. Swift went to London, and begged Henry Sidney, earl of Romney [q.v.], to obtain its fulfilment. Romney agreed to speak, but did not keep his word. Swift then accepted an offer from Lord Berkeley, who in the summer of 1699 was appointed one of the lords justices of Ireland. Swift was to be his chaplain and secretary, but, upon reaching Ireland, Berkeley gave the secretaryship to a Mr. Bush, who had persuaded him that it was unfit for a clergyman. The rich deanery of Derry becoming vacant, Swift applied for it, but Bush had been bribed by another candidate. Swift was told that he might still have it for 1,000l. He replied to the secretary and his master, ?God confound you both for a couple of scoundrels!? (Sheridan, p. 30). He wrote some verses in ridicule of the pair, and in consequence, or in spite, of this received in February 1699-1700 the livings of Laracor, Agher, and Rathbeggan. To these was added in 1700 the prebend of Dunlavin in St. Patrick's. The whole was worth about 230l. a year (Forster, p. 117), which to Swift, with his strictly economical habits, meant independence, so long as he had only himself to keep. Miss Waring apparently thought that the income would be enough for two. In a letter to her (4 May 1700) Swift, after demolishing this theory, offers still to take her as his wife, but upon terms so insulting as to make her acceptance incompatible with the slightest self-respect. This, perhaps the most unpleasant of his actions, produced the desired result. Laracor is a mile or two from Trim. Swift rebuilt the parsonage, made a fishpond, planted willows, and formed a garden. His congregation consisted of about fifteen persons, ?most of them gentle and all simple? (to King, 6 Jan. 1708-9; to Sterne, 17 April 1710). Orrery (p. 29) tells how he proposed to read prayers every Wednesday and Friday, and had to commence the exhortation with the words, ?Dearly beloved Roger, the scripture moveth you and me.? Swift, however, passed much of his time at Dublin, where he was familiar with the official society. Lady Betty Germain [see Germain, Lady Elizabeth], the daughter of Lord Berkeley, dated from this time a long friendship, and in 1700 he gave the first specimen of a peculiar vein of humour in the ?Petition of Mrs. Frances Harris.? He made various visits to London, where he spent altogether some four out of the next ten years, always finding time for a visit to his mother at Leicester. In February 1701 he took his D.D. degree at Dublin, and in April returned with Lord Berkeley to London. The impeachment of the whig lords was then exciting the political world, and a conversation with Berkeley led Swift to write his ?discourse on the dissensions in Athens and Rome.? The pamphlet was to show that the desirable balance of power had been upset by measures analogous to impeachments, and, though well written, appears now to be pedantic or ?academical.? It was, however, successful at the time, and was attributed to Somers and to Burnet. Bishop Sheridan told Swift himself, when he returned to Ireland, that it was written by Burnet, whereupon Swift could not refrain from claiming the authorship (Deane Swift, p. 122; Sheridan, p. 34). On his next visit to England he was welcomed as a promising whig author by Somers, Halifax, and Sunderland, who held out liberal prospects of preferment (Memoirs relating to the Change of Ministry). Though the impeached ministers are incidentally compared to Aristides and other virtuous persons, there is nothing in the pamphlet committing Swift to specifically whig doctrine. He says himself that this was the first occasion on which he began to trouble himself about the difference between whig and tory. On his return to Ireland in September 1701 Swift was accompanied by Esther Johnson, best known as Stella (though, according to Forster, the name was not given to her till after the famous journal), and her friend, Mrs. Dingley. Swift says (in his paper upon her death) that Stella's fortune was only 1,500l., and that she would get a better interest for her money in Ireland. The two ladies settled there permanently. During Swift's absence they lived in his houses at Dublin and Laracor, and when he was in Ireland took lodgings in his neighbourhood. Suggestions were naturally made that this implied a ?secret history.? Swift, however, carefully guarded against scandal. He never saw Stella except in presence of a third person, and says many years afterwards that he has not seen her in a morning these dozen years, except once or ?twice in a journey? (to Tickell, 7 July 1726). They visited England when Swift was there in 1705 and 1708 (Forster, pp. 131, 230; Craik, p. 176). In 1704 Dr. William Tisdal or Tisdall [q.v.], clergyman at Dublin, made an offer to Stella, and charged Swift with opposing his suit. In a remarkable letter (20 April 1704) Swift admits that if his ?fortune and humour? permitted him to think of marriage, he should prefer her to any one on earth. As matters are, however, he is prepared to give Tisdall a fair chance if he will make a proper application to the mother, and declares that he has been Tisdall's friend ?in the whole concern.? The letter, the tone of which is remarkably calm, has been variously interpreted. It admits an affection of which the natural end would be marriage. It may mean that he considered the obstacles in his own case to be so decisive that he could not fairly stand in the way of another match, or that he had private reasons for knowing Tisdall's suit to be hopeless, or that he did not choose to be forced to declare his intentions, and considered that he was giving Tisdall a sufficient hint to keep at a distance. It is certain that he afterwards speaks of Tisdall with marked dislike.

Swift was again in England from April to November 1702, and from November 1703 till May 1704. The Occasional Conformity Bill was now exciting bitter contests in parliament. Swift was mightily urged ?by some great people? to write against the bill. His strong church prejudices made it difficult for him to agree with the whigs, although he still considered himself to belong to the party, and his chance of preferment depended upon them. Somers and Burnet assured him eagerly that they meant no harm to the church. He at last wrote, though with many qualms, but too late to publish (to Tisdall, 16 Dec. 1703 and 3 Feb. 1703-4). Before leaving London in 1704 he published the ?Battle of the Books? and the ?Tale of a Tub.? The authorship was secret, though known in the Moor Park time, and doubtless guessed by many of his friends.

When he next came to London, in April 1705, he became known to the wits. Addison presented to him a copy of his travels (now in the Forster Library), inscribed ?to the most agreeable companion, the truest friend, and the greatest genius of the age.? The genius had no doubt been recognised in the ?Tale of a Tub.? Sheridan (p. 41) tells a story of the quaint behaviour at a coffee-house by which he got the name of the ?mad parson? and attracted the notice of the circle. He knew, however, enough distinguished men to have no difficulty about an introduction. The friendship with Addison was permanent, and is illustrated by one of his pleasantest pieces of humour, ?Baucis and Philemon,? a travesty of Ovid. Swift told Delany (p. 19) that Addison had made him ?blot fourscore lines, add fourscore, and alter fourscore? in a poem ?of not two hundred lines.? Swift exaggerated, but not very much. Forster found the original at Narford, the seat of Sir Andrew Fountaine, and gives the exact figures (Forster, pp. 164, &c.). Addison and Swift met constantly at this time, and never, says Delany, wished for a third person (Delany, p. 32; Forster, p. 159).

Swift spent the whole of 1706 in Ireland, and returned to England in November 1707 with Lord Pembroke, who had been lord lieutenant for a time, and had thus made Swift's acquaintance. Swift had now an official mission. Queen Anne's bounty had been founded in England in 1704. A similar measure had been suggested for Ireland (see Swift to King, 31 Dec. 1704) some time before, and Swift was now instructed to apply to the English government to make the grant. Swift calculated that the surrender of the first-fruits and twentieths and certain other funds for the benefit of the church would cost the crown about 2,500l. a year (see his Memorial to Harley, 17 Nov. 1710). The negotiation dragged, and Swift remained in England till the beginning of 1709. He applied to Somers and other great men, and at last, in June 1708, had an interview with Godolphin. Godolphin intimated that some acknowledgment would be expected from the Irish clergy. The phrase meant that they should consent to the abolition of the test. This was regarded both by Swift and his clients as out of the question. He could for the present only wait for opportunities of further negotiation. He was still reckoned a whig. In January 1708 the bishopric of Waterford was vacant, and Somers, as Swift believed, pressed his claims upon the government (Forster, p. 211). Swift was bitterly disappointed when it was given to Thomas Milles [q.v.]. The fall of Harley in February marked the triumph of the whigs. When Somers and others came into office, Swift thought that the change might prove favourable to his cause and himself, though protesting that he would not make his fortune at the expense of the church (to King, 9 Nov. 1708). At the same time, however, he had thoughts of getting ?out of the way of the parties? by becoming secretary to Lord Berkeley's proposed embassy to Vienna.

Meanwhile Swift was seeing much of Halifax, Addison, Steele, and Congreve. It was at the end of 1707 that he launched his famous joke against the astrologer John Partridge [q.v.] (1644-1715, for a full account of this performance). The name of Bickerstaff, under which he wrote, became famous, and was adopted by Steele for the ?Tatler.? He wrote some graver pamphlets: the ?Argument to prove the inconvenience of abolishing Christianity,? which showed that he could ridicule a deist as well as a papist or a presbyterian; a ?Project for the Advancement of Religion,? and the ?Sentiments of a Church of England Man.? In the ?Project? he suggested the plan adopted by Harley a little later for building fifty new churches in London. These pamphlets are remarkable as an exposition of his political principles at the time. He fully agrees with the whigs as accepting the ?revolution principles,? but holds that the state should vigorously support the church. The government therefore could not give the dissenters too ?much ease nor trust them with too little power.? The application of this principle to the Test Act is obvious, and is significant of Swift's position in the following months.

In October 1708 the Earl of Wharton was appointed lord lieutenant. Swift waited upon him to press the first-fruits application. Wharton put him off with ?lame excuses,? which were repeated when Swift made a second attempt with the help of Somers. Perceiving that Wharton would endeavour to abolish the test, Swift wrote a pamphlet, his ?Letter on the Sacramental Test? (December 1708), in which for the first time his power as a political writer was revealed. It is a fierce attack upon the claims put forward by the Irish presbyterians, and amounts to a declaration of war to the knife. Swift carefully concealed the authorship, even from his correspondent, Archbishop King. He even complains to King that the author ?reflects upon me as a person likely to write for repealing the test? (to King 6 Jan. 1708-9). This apparently refers to a passage not discoverable and suppressed in the reprint of 1711 (see Forster, p. 250). The authorship, however, was suspected, according to Swift, by Wharton's secretary (Change of Ministry), and injured him with ministers. Swift in fact, while still hoping for preferment, was anonymously attacking a favourite measure of the advanced whigs. He was afterwards accused of having made an application to be Wharton's chaplain. Samuel Salter [q.v.] of the Charterhouse professed to have seen letters of Swift to Somers, and Somers's letters to Wharton, and reported Wharton's contemptuous answer: ?We cannot countenance these fellows. We have not character enough ourselves.? This, it is suggested, caused Swift's desertion of the whigs. Swift, however, writing at the time, states that he made no application to Wharton (to King, 30 Nov. 1708, and to Sterne same day). Before he left England Somers asked him to take a letter (no doubt of recommendation) to Wharton, but he ?absolutely refused,? though he finally consented to deliver it in Dublin some months later. Swift's account is clear and consistent, and Salter is described by Bishop Percy as a repeater of silly anecdotes (Nichols, Illustrations, viii. 160). The story is merely an instance of the calumnies suggested by Swift's change of party (the story told originally by Salter in the Gentleman's Magazine is given in the annotated Tatler, 1786, vol. v., with an answer by Theophilus Swift [q.v.]. It is also discussed in Monck Berkeley's Literary Relics, 1789, pp. xl, &c.; and see Scott's Swift, i. 99, &c., and Craik, p. 154 n.).

Swift had still hopes of success in the ?first-fruits? business, and on 6 Jan. 1708-9 tells King that he has heard from Lord Pembroke that the concession had been made. On 26 March he has to explain that this was a delusion. He was suffering from bad attacks of his old complaint and greatly dispirited. He lingered in London till 3 May, when he called upon Halifax and begged a book, asking the donor to remember that it was the only favour he had ever received from him or his party. A few months later he endorsed a complimentary letter from the great man as a ?true original of courtiers and court promises? (Sheridan, p. 97). He sent two adulatory letters, however, to Halifax (Johnson, Lives of the Poets, ed. Cunningham, iii. 201) to remind him of his promise in case of accident. He left London on 3 May, and, after staying five weeks at Chester, reached Ireland on 30 June. He retired at once to Laracor, and saw nothing of any friends except Esther Johnson and Addison, who was now Wharton's secretary (Journal to Stella, 3 May 1711).

When the whig ministry was breaking up in 1710, Swift remarked that he might expect something in ?a new world, since? he ?had the merit of suffering by not complying with the old? (to Tooke, 29 June 1710); he considered, that is, that preferment had been withheld by the whigs because he would not support their policy. There can in fact be no doubt that the secret of Swift's alienation from the whigs was his intense devotion to his order. He had imbibed in an intensified form all the prejudices of the Irish churchmen of his day. He hated with exceeding bitterness the presbyterians of the north, their Scottish allies, and the English dissenters. But he also heartily despised the Jacobites. James II had taught him and his friends a lesson in 1688, and his relations to Temple had thrown him into a whig connection at starting. As it became evident that whiggism meant alliance with dissent, Swift's distrust of the leaders deepened into aversion. He is indeed more to be blamed for adhering so long to so uncongenial a connection than for breaking it off so early. Unfortunately, Swift could never separate personal from public questions. He complained of not being rewarded for his services, not the less bitterly because he also boasted that he had never rendered them. He would not exculpate the whigs from ingratitude, though as whigs they had no reasons to be grateful. His complaints have therefore given plausibility to imputations of ?ratting? when in fact he was really discovering his genuine affinities, at a time, it is true, when the discovery coincided with his personal interests. In the summer of 1710 Swift was requested by the Irish bishops to take up once more the first-fruits negotiation, which would have better chance under a change of administration. He went to England, as he writes to Esther Johnson, with less desire than ever before. The famous ?Journal to Stella? begins from Chester on 2 Sept., and records his history minutely in the following years. He reached London on 7 Sept., and on the 9th writes to King that he was ?caressed by both parties.? The whigs took him to be ?a sort of bough for drowning men to lay hold of.? Godolphin, however, was ?morose.? Somers made explanations to which Swift listened coldly. Somers, he says (24 Jan. 1710-11), is a ?false, deceitful rascal.? Halifax asked him to dinner. He saw something of Addison, and contributed to Steele's ?Tatler.? Meanwhile the elections were going for the tories, and on 4 Oct. Swift saw Harley, to whom he had got himself represented as ?one extremely ill-used by the last ministry.? Harley welcomed him with effusion. Within a week he was treating Swift as an intimate friend, and promising to get the first-fruits business settled at once. Swift's exultation was mingled with triumph over those ?ungrateful dogs? the whigs. On 4 Nov. he writes to King to announce authoritatively that the first-fruits will be granted. The Irish bishops had meanwhile bethought themselves that Swift's whiggish connections might disqualify him as an intercessor, and proposed to take the matter out of his hands. Swift was angry, though no doubt amused by this unconscious testimony to his success. Harley had won not only the gratitude but the permanent devotion of his new friend. Swift, though seeing plainly the minister's faults, always speaks of him hereafter with the strongest personal affection.

Swift began at once by political squibs, attacking his enemy Godolphin in ?Sid Hamet's Rod,? which had a great success, and producing in December what he rightly calls ?a damned libellous pamphlet? against the hated Wharton, of which two thousand copies were sold in two days (Journal, 15 Oct. 1710, and 1 Jan. 1710-1). He was already employed upon more important work. The ?Examiner? had been started as a weekly paper to support the tories, and had been for a time answered by Addison in a short-lived ?Whig Examiner.? Swift now took over the ?Examiner,? of which the original authors were tired, and wrote the numbers from 2 Nov. 1710 to 14 June 1711. Their success was unprecedented. With an air of downright common-sense and vigorous insistence upon the main points, Swift defends the ministerial policy. He expresses the general weariness of the war, which was now, he argued, being carried on for the benefit of Marlborough, the ?monied men,? and our Dutch allies; he appeals to the interests of the church and the landed men, and denounces some of his hated opponents. He often took credit for sparing Marlborough (Journal, 7 Jan., 12 Jan., and 18 Feb. 1710-1711), whom he heartily disliked, but still took to be necessary. The ?sparing? is not very evident now, but at the time Swift and his patron, Harley, appeared as too moderate to some of their own side. The ministry, as Swift says (4 March 1710-11), stood ?like an isthmus? between whigs and violent tories. Swift endeavoured to restrain the excess of zeal, and was very nervous at reports of Harley's ill-health. When, on 8 March 1711, Harley was stabbed by Guiscard, Swift was thrown into an agony of fear. He afterwards preserved Guiscard's knife as a memorial (Deane Swift, p. 163; Scott, i. 196 n.; Nichols, Lit. Illustr. v. 379). Swift took lodgings at Chelsea on 26 April to have the benefit of a walk to London. He often went to Windsor in the summer with ministers, and describes his journeys in his imitation of Horace (6th satire of 2nd book). He saw the queen occasionally, but Harley, it seems, never fulfilled his promise of presenting him formally at court. Prior's secret mission to Paris in the summer gave occasion for one of Swift's characteristic ?bites.? When it was made known by an accident, he wrote a mock account, supposed to come from a French valet, which is an amusing instance of his power of mystification. The serious purpose of the pamphlet was apparently to test the public feeling as to the peace negotiations. This gave the occasion for Swift's most important work at this time. In concert with St. John he prepared, during the summer, his pamphlet upon the ?Conduct of the Allies.? The whigs were to make a great effort at the meeting of parliament. They made an alliance with Nottingham [see Finch, Daniel, second Earl of Nottingham] by agreeing to accept the Occasional Conformity Bill; and the queen was thought to be drawn towards them by the influence of the Duchess of Somerset. Swift, as usual, took a gloomy view of political prospects. His pamphlet appeared on 27 Nov., and was greedily bought. It was a powerful defence of the thesis assumed in the ?Examiner,? that the war had been protracted against our true interests from corrupt motives, and solely to benefit our allies. When a vote hostile to the ministry was passed in the House of Lords, Swift was in despair and begged St. John to get him a secretaryship abroad, to which he might retreat if the ministry fell (Journal, 7 Dec. 1711). He recommended, however, strong measures all the more earnestly. On 13 Dec. he was alarmed by hearing that the chief justice (Parker) had threatened the printer of the ?Conduct of the Allies,? which he would not have had the impudence to do had he not anticipated a change. Swift consoled himself by writing the ?Windsor Prophecy,? a squib in which he charged the Duchess of Somerset with having red hair and having been concerned in the murder of her second husband [see under Seymour, Charles, sixth Duke of Somerset]. It was privately printed, and a dozen copies given to each of his friends at the Brothers' Club. Mrs. Masham persuaded him not to publish it; but it was probably shown to the queen, and would not conciliate her or her favourite (Journal, 23, 26, and 27 Dec. 1711). His anxiety was at last relieved by the creation of the twelve peers and the dismissal of Marlborough from all his offices at the end of the year.

The tories were now triumphant; but success brought disunion. The October Club, composed of the more violent tories, complained that the ministry had not gone far enough. Swift endeavoured to pacify them by a ?twopenny pamphlet? of advice, and complains (ib. 28 Jan. 1711-12) that, though ?finely written,? it did not sell. The jealousies between Harley (now Lord Oxford) and St. John were becoming serious. Swift had noticed a discord soon after Guiscard's attempt, and had been labouring to effect a reconciliation (ib. 27 April, 15 and 27 Aug., and 20 Oct. 1711). He knew, he said, that he was endangering his own interests by acting an ?honest part,? but the jealousy was steadily growing. Swift, during the early part of 1712, speaks several times of his expectation of returning to Ireland, and is only detained by some piece of business (ib. 7, 27 Feb. 1711-12, 31 May, 17 June 1712). He had received promises from ministers at an early period, but professed to count little upon them (ib. 5 April, 22 May, 25 Aug. 1711). He was becoming discontented, and complains that he can help every one except himself (ib. 8 and 17 March 1711-12). He employed himself in some of his usual squibs and in helping to preface a famous ?Representation? from the House of Commons (ib. 8 March 1711-12). He wrote nothing, however, comparable to his previous efforts. A distressing illness at the end of March caused him to drop his regular ?Journal to Stella.? He wrote occasional letters, but the journal was suspended until the following December. He was at Windsor for some time in August and September, and was at work upon the book afterwards published as the ?History of the Last Four Years of Queen Anne? (ib. 15 Sept. 1712). His letters frequently complain of giddiness and depression of spirits, and the want of any personal result of his labours became vexatious. John Sharp, the archbishop of York [q.v.], is said to have complained to the queen of the irreligious tendency of the ?Tale of a Tub.? Swift calls Sharp his ?mortal enemy? (ib. 23 April 1713), and although, at the end, Sharp seems to have wished for a reconciliation, this plausible imputation would no doubt be a serious obstacle (see Swift, The Author upon Himself, 1713; and Delany, Observations, p. 270). At last, in the spring of 1713, there were several vacancies, and Swift told Oxford that he would at once go to Ireland if ?something honourable? were not immediately given to him. After a long dispute it was at last settled that John Sterne [q.v.], dean of St. Patrick's, should be made bishop of Dromore, and Swift promoted to the vacated deanery. The warrants were finally signed on 23 April, and Swift left London on 1 June, and was installed dean of St. Patrick's on the 13th.

During his stay in London Swift had made himself conspicuous in society as well as in politics. His relations to the whigs had naturally cooled. Steele had lost his place as gazetteer, but had another small office, which Swift begged Harley not to take away. Harley consented, but stipulated that Steele should call with an apology for previous errors. Steele never came, being held back, as Swift thought, by Addison. Swift declared that he would never speak in their favour again (Journal, 22 Oct., 15 Dec. 1710, 4 Feb. 1710-11, 29 June 1711). The breach with Steele was complete, but he still occasionally saw Addison, and declares (14 Sept. 1711) that no man was ?half so agreeable to him.? Meanwhile he had been welcomed to the tables of ministers. Harley offered him a 50l. banknote for his services as ?a writer;? Swift insisted upon an apology, and, upon the quarrel being made up, was invited to one of Harley's Saturday dinners, with St. John and Harcourt, the lord-keeper (ib. 7 and 17 Feb., and 6 March 1710-11). He ?chid? Lord Rivers for presuming to join the party, and they all called him ?Jonathan.? They would, he replied, leave him Jonathan as they found him. In June he was one of the original members of the Brothers' Club (ib. 21 June 1711). The club held weekly dinners, and was intended, besides promoting sociability, to advise ministers to a worthy distribution of patronage to men of letters. Harley and Harcourt were excluded, apparently to secure the independence of the advice, but it included St. John and several tory peers; while literature was represented by Swift, Prior, Freind, and Arbuthnot. Political squibs were occasionally laid upon the table and subscriptions raised for poor authors. The club declined in 1713, but its members long addressed each other as ?brother.? Swift's ambition to become a patron of literature suggested the only pamphlet published with his name, a ?Proposal for Correcting ¼ the English Language? written in February 1711-12 (ib. 21 Feb. 1711-12). An academy was to be founded for this purpose. Swift speaks of this scheme on 22 June 1711, and continued to cherish it. The ministry had other things to think of. Swift was heartily desirous to help poor authors. He was perseveringly kind to William Harrison (1685-1713) [q.v.], and deeply affected by his death. He got help for him in his last illness and for William Diaper, a ?poor poet in a nasty garret.? He induced Oxford to make the first advances to Parnell, and recommended Berkeley (afterwards the bishop) to all the ministers (13 Jan. 1712-13 and 12 April 1713). He did a ?good day's work? by relieving his old schoolfellow Congreve of the fears of being turned out by the new ministry (22 June 1711), and obtained a promise of a place for Nicholas Rowe (27 Dec. 1712). The members, he says, complained that he never came to them ?without a whig in his sleeve.? Naturally, however, his intimates were chiefly tories, and the most eminent of the young men encouraged by him was Pope (first mentioned in his Journal, 13 March 1712-13). A passage frequently quoted from the ?Journal? of Bishop White Kennett [q.v.] describes Swift at court in 1713 touting for subscriptions to Pope's ?Homer,? and making an ostentatious display of his interest at court. It tends to confirm the unjust impression that Swift was a sycophant disguised as a bully. His self-assertion showed bad taste, but the independence was genuine, and the services of which he bragged were really performed. If he could be generous to dependents, he had no mercy upon his enemies, and complained that Bolingbroke was not active enough in ?swingeing? Grub Street assailants (28 Oct. 1712). He was sensitive to abuse, and was stung to the quick when Steele in the ?Guardian? of 12 May 1713, attacking an article in the ?Examiner,? insinuated that Swift was an accomplice, and hinted that he was an unbeliever. The ?Examiner? was now edited by William Oldisworth [q.v.], who was unknown to Swift, but who received occasional hints from government and took a gift from the Brothers' Club (1 Feb. and 12 March 1712-13). Swift wrote an indignant remonstrance to Addison denying all complicity with the ?Examiner,? and truly declaring that he had done his best to keep Steele's place for him. Steele unjustifiably refused to accept either statement, and they became bitter enemies.

When Swift reached Dublin in 1713 he was received, according to Orrery (p. 49) and Sheridan (p. 183), with insults by the people generally. Delany (p. 87) denies this, which may perhaps refer to his arrival after the fall of the tories. He was, in any case, ?horribly melancholy.? The discord of the ministry was increasing. Swift fancied at one time (Journal, 8 April 1713) that he had effected a reconciliation. But he was entreated by his political friends to return to try the hopeless task again. He reached London in September, and found the political excitement rising; the new parliament was to be elected; the treaty of Utrecht had enraged the whigs; and the state of the queen's health threatened a political catastrophe at any moment. Swift showed his own bitterness by writing against Bishop Burnet and Steele. ?The Importance of the ?Guardian? considered? was his reply to Steele's ?Importance of Dunkirk considered.? ?The Public Spirit of the Whigs considered? replied to Steele's ?Crisis,? published in January 1713-14. (The ?Character of Steele? and another attack by ?Andrew Tripe? are attributed to Swift. The evidence, however, would be equally cogent against Pope or some other friend, whom Swift may possibly have encouraged to write. The internal evidence is not in favour of Swift's own authorship.). Swift's powerful invective was in striking contrast to Steele's feeble performance in an uncongenial field; and he treats both Steele and Burnet with contemptuous insolence. One of his aims was to repudiate the charge of jacobitism made against the tories. Swift's frequent denials that any jacobite intrigue existed (see especially letter to King, 16 Dec. 1716), though mistaken in fact, were certainly sincere. The ministers had an obvious interest in keeping him in the dark, if only that he might give the lie to dangerous reports more effectively. Steele was expelled from the House of Commons for the ?Crisis;? and the peers petitioned the crown for action against the unknown author of the ?Public Spirit.? Oxford offered a reward of 300l. for his discovery, and when the printers were summoned to the bar of the House, sent 100l. privately to Swift to pay for their damages.

Meanwhile, the split between Oxford and Bolingbroke was widening. Swift, after vain expostulations, gave up the game, and retired at the end of May to the vicarage of an old friend at Upper Letcombe in Berkshire. He had shortly before (15 April) applied for the office of historiographer to the queen, which brought trifling profit, but would enable him to write his proposed history. He seems to have been greatly annoyed at Bolingbroke's failure to secure the success of this application (to Miss Vanhomrigh, 1 Aug. 1714). He tried at times to forget politics; he corresponded with Arbuthnot and Pope on the satire to be written by the ?Scriblerus Club,? an informal association of the tory wits started at this period, with which Oxford had found time to exchange verses in April. Politicians, however, entreated Swift to leave his retirement; and he was writing his ?Free Thoughts on the Present State of Affairs,? throwing the blame chiefly upon Oxford's vacillation, and recommending vigorous action against the whigs. The pamphlet, of which the authorship was to be carefully concealed (Ford to Swift, 20 July 1714), was too late. The final fall of Oxford was followed by the death of the queen (1 Aug.), and Swift saw at once that the case was hopeless. Lady Masham, who had helped Bolingbroke's intrigue, wrote on 29 July to entreat Swift to stay in England and support the queen, who had been, as she said, ?barbarously used? by Oxford. On 1 July, however, Swift had written a warm acknowledgment of gratitude to Oxford, whose resignation he anticipated. On 25 July, hearing that it was coming, he had written offering to accompany Oxford in his retreat. On 1 Aug. he tells Miss Vanhomrigh that he could not join with Bolingbroke; Oxford had accepted his offer in the ?most moving terms imaginable.? Swift could not refuse the fallen minister who, when in power, had been so good to him. Although condemning Oxford as a minister, he could not desert the friend. The queen's death ruined both ministers; and Swift on 16 Aug. left Berkshire for Ireland.

Swift retired to what he always regarded as a place of exile in sullen despondency. In verses written in sickness he laments his solitude, and says that life is becoming a burden. He is living alone, he tells Pope next year (28 June 1715), in ?the corner of a vast unfurnished house.? Could he be easy, he asks, while his friends Oxford, Bolingbroke, and Ormonde were in danger of losing their heads? He wrote another affectionate letter to Oxford upon his impeachment (19 July 1715). Next year he bitterly resented a suggestion from King that Bolingbroke might be able to tell an ?ill story? of him (16 Dec. 1716). He declares his innocence of any plots in favour of the Pretender. King's suspicions had been stimulated by letters addressed to Swift and seized in the post office, but they were clearly groundless (see Craik, p. 306). Swift's chief amusement seems to have been in petty quarrels with the archbishop and his choir.

To this period has been assigned his alleged marriage to Esther Johnson. The journal addressed to her during her stay in London, full of caresses so playful and intimate that to read them even now seems a breach of confidence, clearly suggests intention of marriage. He ostensibly joins her with Mrs. Dingley as ?M.D.,? but when he says (23 May 1711) that ?M.D.'s felicity is the great goal I aim at in all my pursuits,? there could be only one interpretation. In the journal Swift frequently mentions a Mrs. Vanhomrigh, with whom he often dined, and at whose lodgings he kept his ?best gown and periwig? when he was at Chelsea. Mrs. Vanhomrigh was the widow of a Dutch merchant who had followed William III to Ireland and obtained places of profit. He died in 1703, leaving about 16,000l. and four children. One son died early, and the other behaved ill (Orrery, p. 103; Deane Swift, pp. 257-262). In 1708 Mrs. Vanhomrigh, with her two daughters, Esther (born 14 Feb. 1689-1690; see Journal, 14 Feb. 1710-11, 14 Aug. 1711) and Mary, was living in London, where Swift met them in that year. The journal rarely mentions Esther, and the silence may be significant. An intimacy sprang up between her and Swift, which is described in his remarkable poem, ?Cadenus and Vanessa,? written at Windsor in 1713 (revised in 1719), but not then published. Swift's behaviour to women was always a mixture of tyrannising and petting. He often refers in later years to an ?edict? which he issued annually in London commanding all ladies to make the first advances. In 1709 he drew up a treaty setting forth the terms on which a beautiful Miss Long was to claim his acquaintance. ?Hessy? Vanhomrigh undertakes not to abet her in her ?contumacy.? He showed genuine kindness to Miss Long, who died in sad circumstances, to his great sorrow, in 1711 (Journal, 25 Dec. 1711). Miss Vanhomrigh became his devoted slave. The ?Cadenus and Vanessa? states that he at first regarded her as a master might regard a promising pupil. She startled him after a time by confessing that love had taken the place of admiration in her heart. He tried to persuade her to suppress her passion, but offered as much friendship as she pleased. She replied that she would now become his tutor; but the result of her instructions remained a secret. Swift wrote to her from Dublin in 1713, and from Letcombe in 1714, in terms implying close confidence, though expressing no special affection. Her mother died in the summer of 1714. Vanessa seems to have surprised Swift by an indiscreet visit at Letcombe soon afterwards. She was intending to return to Ireland with her sister, and he warns her that if she comes he will see her very seldom. She was in Dublin, however, in November 1714, and complains piteously of the restrictions upon their intercourse, of his ?killing words,? and the ?awful? look which ?strikes her dumb.? She settled at Marlay Abbey, near Celbridge, on the Liffey, where her sister died in 1720. The correspondence, which is fragmentary, shows that she wrote to him in terms of passionate adoration. He makes excuses for not seeing her oftener; he advises her (5 July 1721) to ?quit this scoundrel island,? and yet he assures her in the same breath ?que jamais personne du monde a été aimée, honorée, estimée, adorée par votre ami que vous.? In other passages he recalls old associations and uses fondling terms, while he yet seems to reproach her for yielding to morbid sentiment. It is also said that he favoured the proposals of marriage to her from another person (Deane Swift, p. 263). How far he was ?in love? with her is a matter of doubtful inference. The stronger his feeling, the greater would be the excuse for his behaviour to her. Reluctance to give her pain, and to sacrifice a friendship so valuable to himself in his retirement, might be pleaded as some extenuation of his temporising; but if, as is alleged, he was really married to Stella, he was clearly bound to speak out. In 1723 Vanessa wrote a letter to Stella (Sheridan, p. 290), or to Swift himself (Orrery, p. 113), asking whether they were married. Swift rode off to Celbridge in a fury, threw down the letter, and retired without speaking a word. Vanessa died before the autumn from the shock. She revoked a will in favour of Swift, and by another (dated 1 May 1723) divided her fortune between the famous Berkeley and Judge Marshall. She also entrusted to them as executors her correspondence with Swift (extracts from this were given by Sheridan, but it was first fully published in Scott's edition of the ?Works?) and ?Cadenus and Vanessa,? which was published after her death. Swift hid himself for two months in the south of Ireland. Stella was also shocked, but, when somebody remarked that Vanessa must have been a remarkable woman to inspire such poetry, observed that the dean could write well upon a broomstick (Delany, p. 57). The story of the marriage to Stella has been much discussed. Swift had sufficient reasons, in his passionate desire for independence, for not marrying before he had won his deanery. The profound depression into which he was thrown by the fall of his party, and the constant alarms as to his health, which made him old before his time, may well account for his not caring to marry on his return to Ireland. Nor does it seem necessary with some of his biographers to lay any particular stress upon the coldness of temperament of which he speaks. The marriage was, in any case, merely formal. Orrery (p. 22) states positively, and Delany (p. 52) confirms the statement, that Swift was privately married to Stella by St. George Ashe [q.v.], bishop of Clogher, in 1716. Deane Swift first thought the story to be an idle rumour (Craik, p. 529), but accepts it in his book (p. 92). Sheridan (p. 282) agrees in this, and adds that Swift found that Stella was depressed, and, on learning the cause through a common friend, declared that he was too old and too poor to marry, but consented to have the ceremony performed, which would at least prevent his marrying any one else. Sheridan gives Mrs. Sican, a friend of Swift's in his later years, for his authority. Monck Berkeley, in his ?Relics? (p. xxxvi), repeats the statement of the marriage by Ashe on the authority of his grandmother, Bishop Berkeley's widow, who told him that Berkeley himself had the story from Ashe. Berkeley in 1716 was travelling abroad as tutor to Ashe's son, and did not return till after Ashe's death (1718). It is hardly conceivable that Ashe should have at once written to communicate so confidential a transaction to his son's tutor, and the grandson could only have heard the story in his childhood. Johnson heard from Samuel Madden [q.v.] that Stella had told the story on her deathbed to Dr. Sheridan, Swift's old friend, the father of the biographer. Besides this, there is a story told by Delany (p. 56) that shortly before Vanessa's death Swift offered to own the marriage, and that Stella replied ?too late.? Stella told this to a friend well known to Delany, probably Sheridan. Deane Swift was told by Mrs. Whiteway, who lived with Swift in later years, that Stella had given the same account to Dr. Sheridan (unpublished letter to Orrery, written before Swift's death; quoted by Craik, p. 532). Theophilus, son of Deane Swift, told Scott a story which is apparently a distorted version of the same. Sheridan (p. 316) says that Stella begged Swift in presence of Dr. Sheridan, shortly before her death, to make the acknowledgment, and that Swift turned on his heel and left the room. He adds an erroneous statement that she altered her will in consequence. Her will (in which she appears as ?spinster?) was in accordance with a suggestion made by Swift (to Worrall, 15 July 1726). Dr. John Lyon [q.v.], who attended Swift in his last years, disbelieved the whole story, and says that Mrs. Dingley laughed at it as an ?idle tale.? Mrs. Brent, the dean's housekeeper, similarly disbelieved it.

Sir Henry Craik, whose authority is very high, is convinced by the evidence. Forster (p. 140) thought it quite insufficient. The objections are obvious. The general curiosity which had been stimulated by the mystery made it quite certain that some such story would be told, and the tellers would have the glory of being in the secret. Orrery, Deane Swift, and the younger Sheridan are uncritical, and could only know the story at second-hand. Delany was an old friend of Swift, and his belief in the marriage is strongly in its favour; but he does not tell us by what evidence he was convinced. It seems to be clear from Mrs. Whiteway's evidence that the elder Sheridan (who died in 1738) received some statement from Stella, whom he certainly saw frequently in her last illness. The other stories seem to depend more or less directly upon Sheridan. It is impossible to say what precisely was Sheridan's own version of a story which became more circumstantial with repetitions, or how far he was simply reporting or interpreting Stella's own account. It does not appear on what ground the date and the name of Ashe were assigned. Experience in biography does not tend to strengthen belief in such anecdotes. On the whole, though the evidence has weight, it can hardly be regarded as conclusive. The ceremony, in any case, made no difference to the habits of the parties. They lived apart, and Stella used her maiden name in her will.

Until he was over fifty Swift had not appeared as a patriot. He shared in an intensified form all the prejudices of the Irish churchman against dissenters, catholics, and jacobites. He was proud of being an Englishman, though he ?happened to be dropped? in Ireland (see letter to Grant, 23 March 1733-4, and Oxford, 14 June 1737). He could speak warmly of the natural intelligence of the native Irish (to Wogan, July 1732), but he considered them to be politically insignificant, and shows no desire for any change or for a relaxation of the penal laws. At this period, however, his prejudices were roused against the English government. The English colonists in Ireland were aggrieved by the restrictions upon Irish trade, and their oppressors were the hated whigs. Swift's eyes were opened, and his hatred of oppression was not the less genuine because first excited by his personal antipathies. The first symptom of his return to political warfare was the publication of a proposal for the universal use of Irish manufactures in 1720. He declared that the oppression of Ireland was calculated to call down a judgment from heaven, and says that whoever travels in the country will hardly think himself ?in a land where law, religion, and common humanity are professed.? The printer of the pamphlet was prosecuted, and the chief justice, Whitsted, after sending the jury back nine times, only induced them, after eleven hours' struggle, to return a special verdict. The prosecution had to be dropped. In 1722 a patent was given to William Wood, an English tradesman, to provide a copper coinage, which was much wanted in Ireland. Wood was to pay 1,000l. a year to the crown for fourteen years, and the Duchess of Kendal, the king's mistress, sold the patent to Wood for 10,000l. It seems that Wood was allowed to make a good bargain in order to be able to pay these sums. The real grievance, however, was not so much that the Irish had to pay a high price for their copper coinage, as that they had to pay a high price for the benefit of Wood and the duchess without being 
Swift, Jonathan (I10447)
 
2184 Table of Contents page: http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ga/pike.htm
Georgia Table of Contents: http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ga/gafiles.htm

The Pike County Journal.
Zebulon, Pike County, Georgia, Jan. 6, 1896

The announcement of the death of Mr. "Pete" McDowell, which occurred in Barnesville this week was sad intelligence to many of our people. Mr. McDowell was an excellent young man, and a son of the lamented Dr. McDowell. His death was a result of chronic diarrhoea.

(Transcribed 11/15/02 Lynn Cunningham)

Note:
At Zebulon Road Cemetery, Lamar (formerly Pike) County:
McDowell, W.H. (Pete), b. 22 July 1871, d. 29 Dec 1895 
McDowell, William Heard (I1371)
 
2185 TALBOT, FRANCIS, fifth Earl of Shrewsbury (1500-1560), born at Sheffield Castle in 1500, was second but eldest surviving son of George Talbot, fourth earl of Shrewsbury [q. v.], by his first wife, Anne, daughter of William, first baron Hastings [q. v.] From 1500 until his father's death in 1538 he was styled Lord Talbot. On 17 July 1527 he was associated with his father in the chamberlainship of the exchequer, and subsequently in the stewardship of many manors and castles; in 1532 he was placed on the commission of the peace in Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and the North Riding of Yorkshire, and in September of that year he accompanied Henry VIII on his visit to Calais. On 17 Feb. 1532-3 he was summoned to parliament as Baron Talbot, and on 1 June following he bore the queen's sceptre at the coronation of Anne Boleyn (Wriothesley, Chron. i. 20). He was again summoned to parliament on 15 Jan. 1533-4, and in July sat as one of his peers on Lord Dacre's trial. Throughout the autumn of 1536 and 1537 he served with his father in suppressing the pilgrimage of grace (Gairdner, Letters and Papers, vols. xi. and xii. passim). On 26 July 1538 he succeeded his father as fifth Earl of Shrewsbury. The greater part of Shrewsbury's life was spent on the Scottish borders; in 1542 he was serving under the Duke of Norfolk, and in April 1544 he was appointed captain of the rear squadron of Hertford's fleet and commander of the rear-guard of his army [see Seymour, Edward, first Duke of Somerset]. On 10 June he was named lieutenant-general of the north, in succession to Hertford. He remained in command on the borders until 1545, but the rout of the English at Ancrum Moor in February reflected discredit on him, and Hertford again took command (see Hamilton Papers, vol. ii. passim). On 17 May Shrewsbury was compensated for the loss of his command by being elected K.G.

At the coronation of Edward VI, on 20 Feb. 1546-7, Shrewsbury was a commissioner of claims, and in the following month he officiated at the memorial service for Francis I (Corresp. Pol. de Odet de Selve, p. 53). On 19 May he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Nottinghamshire. He was excused attendance on Somerset during the Pinkie campaign in September 1547, but he was present at Edward VI's first parliament in the same year (November-December), being one of the lords' representatives at a conference between the two houses on a bill for repealing the treason and felony laws (Lords' Journals, 16 Dec. 1547). In June 1548 he was associated with Lord Grey de Wilton in the command on the borders; their chief exploit was the relief and fortification of Haddington in September. Shrewsbury seems to have been hampered by his instructions, and the French ambassador reported, on no good evidence, that Somerset had entrusted the command to Shrewsbury with the sinister object that he might ruin himself by the mistakes he made (Corresp. Pol. p. 429). He remained on the borders throughout the summer and autumn, but attended the parliament which sat from November 1548 to March 1548-9. He voted against the bill for re-establishing the force of marriage pre-contracts, and in January and February, when he first appears as a member of the privy council, he took, with Southampton and Sir Thomas Smith, the principal part in the proceedings against the lord high admiral, Thomas, lord Seymour of Sudeley [q. v.] In the following May Shrewsbury was appointed president of the council of the north, with instructions to enforce the Protector's policy against enclosures (State Papers, Dom. Edw. VI, vol. iii. No. 47). He was at court on 23 June, but was again in the north in August, when he was directed to send aid to Warwick in Norfolk. In September he was superseded by the Earl of Rutland, and on 8 Oct. he joined the privy council in London and participated in its measures against Somerset.

In the winter of 1549-50 Shrewsbury was again president of the council of the north, and he retained that position to the end of the reign. He was not, however, a partisan of Northumberland. No doubt, like Arundel and other nobles inclined to favour the old religion, he sympathised with Somerset's endeavours to modify Northumberland's harsh measures against Roman catholics. In April 1551 there 'was talk that my Lady Mary would go westward to therle of Shrewsbury' (Acts P. C. ed. Dasent, iii. 264); about the same time it was reported that he was 'put out of his office' and had joined a party of malcontents who would soon plunge the country into civil strife (Cal. State Papers, For. i. 370). On 26 Oct. he was required by the council to disclose what conversation he had had with Richard Whalley [q. v.], who had intrigued for Somerset's restoration to the protectorate. Consequently he was not one of the peers selected to try Somerset on 1 Dec. 1551. He acquiesced, however, in Northumberland's rule, remaining lord president of the council of the north, and a frequent attendant at the meetings of the privy council. He was appointed lord-lieutenant of Yorkshire on 24 May 1553, signed the letters patent of 16 June giving the crown to Lady Jane Grey, the letter of 12 July to Mary declaring her a bastard, and that to Rich on 19 July ordering him to disarm. Secretly, however, he was abetting Arundel's projects in Mary's favour, and on 19 July he was one of the lords who proclaimed Mary queen in London. He was reappointed privy councillor on 10 Aug. and lord-president of the north on 1 Sept., and welcomed the religious reaction of the reign. On 25 May 1555 he was appointed lieutenant of the order of the Garter. During 1557-8 he was in command of an army on the borders raised to resist the Scottish invasion rendered probable by the outbreak of war with France.

Shrewsbury was again commissioner for claims at the coronation of Elizabeth, and remained a privy councillor. He dissented, however, from the act of supremacy on 18 March 1558-9, and from the new service book on 18 April 1559, though on 25 June following he was commissioned to hold a visitation in the province of York to enforce it. He died at Sheffield Castle on 21 Sept. 1560, and was buried there in great state (Peck, Desiderata Curiosa, vii. 17-21; Hunter, Hallamshire, pp. 56-7). Shrewsbury married, first, before 4 Dec. 1523, Mary, daughter of Thomas, second lord Dacre de Gillesland; by her he had issue two sons-George Talbot, sixth earl of Shrewsbury [q. v.], and Thomas, who died young-and one daughter, Anne, who married, first, John, first baron Bray, and, secondly, Thomas, second baron Wharton. Shrewsbury married, secondly, before August 1553, Grace, daughter of Robert Shackerley of Little Longsdon, Derbyshire, and widow of Francis Careless. By her, who died in August 1558, he had no issue; thereupon he vainly sought the hand of Elizabeth, third wife and widow of Sir Thomas Pope [q. v.] Their correspondence is among the unpublished Talbot papers in the College of Arms.

[Much of Shrewsbury's correspondence is among the Talbot Papers in the College of Arms, from which many letters were printed in Lodge's Illustrations, vol. i.; see also Cat. Harleian, Cotton. and Lansd. MSS.; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII; State Papers, Henry VIII; Hamilton Papers; Sadleir State Papers; Cal. Hatfield MSS. vol. i.; Cal. Rutland MSS. vol. i.; Lords' Journals; Acts of the Privy Council; Rymer's Foedera; Cal. State Papers, Domestic, Addenda, Foreign, and Scottish Ser.; Machyn's Diary, Wriothesley's Chron., Chron. of Queen Jane, and Troubles connected with the Prayer-book (Camd. Soc.); Lit. Remains of Edw. VI (Roxburghe Club); Corresp. Pol. de Odet de Selve; Burnet's Hist. Reformation, ed. Pocock; Strype's Works; Tytler, Lingard, and Froude's Histories; Peerages by Collins, Burke, Doyle, and G. E. C[okayne].]

A. F. P. 
Talbot, Francis 5th Earl of Shrewsbury, KG (I13041)
 
2186 TALBOT, GEORGE, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury and Earl of Waterford (1468-1538), born at Shifnal, Shropshire, in 1468, was son and heir of John Talbot, third earl of Shrewsbury (1448-1473), and grandson of John Talbot, second earl of Shrewsbury [q. v.] The father, born on 12 Dec. 1448, succeeded as third earl on 10 July 1460, was knighted on 17 Feb. 1460-1, and appointed chief justice of North Wales on 11 Sept. 1471. On 6 Feb. 1471-2 he was made special commissioner to treat with Scotland, and again on 16 May 1473. He died on 28 June following, having married Katherine, fifth daughter of Humphry Stafford, first duke of Buckingham [q. v.]

George succeeded to the peerage in 1473, when only five years old, and was made a knight of the Bath on 18 April 1475. In September 1484 he took part in the reception of the Scottish ambassadors. At the coronation of Henry VII on 30 Oct. 1485 Shrewsbury bore the sword 'curtana,' a function he also performed at the coronation of Henry VIII on 24 June 1509. On 7 Nov. 1485 he was granted license to enter on his inheritance without proving himself of age (Campbell, Materials, i. 150), and on 9 March 1485-6 he was appointed justice in eyre for various lordships on the Welsh marches. In May 1487 he was made a captain in the army, and fought at the battle of Stoke on 16 June. He was installed a knight of the Garter on 27 April 1488, and on 23 Dec. following was made chief commissioner of musters in Staffordshire. In 1489 he served on various commissions of oyer and terminer, and in July 1490 was appointed to the command of an army of eight thousand men, destined for the defence of Brittany against Charles VIII of France (Andreas, Historia, pp. 207, 375). In October 1492 he accompanied Henry VII to Boulogne, and was present when the peace of Etaples was signed on 3 Nov. (Gairdner, Letters and Papers of Henry VII, p. 291). In 1494 he was serving at Calais (Rutland MSS. i. 15, 16), and in November of that year took part in the ceremonies of Prince Henry's creation as Duke of York. Various grants followed in 1495 (Doyle). In December 1508 he was appointed to meet the Flemish ambassadors at Deptford and conduct them to court (Gairdner, Letters and Papers of Henry VII, i. 370).

On the accession of Henry VIII Shrewsbury became lord steward of the household, privy councillor, and one of the chamberlains of the exchequer (Brewer, Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, i. 32). On 10 Nov. 1511 he was appointed joint ambassador with the Earl of Surrey to Julius II, with the object of concluding a 'holy league' against France (ib. i. 1955), and a year later he was sent on a similar mission to Ferdinand of Arragon (ib. i. 3513). In 1513, after serving as commissioner of array in Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire, he was on 12 May appointed lieutenant-general of the first division of the army in France, and served throughout the siege of Therouenne (ib. i. 3336, 3760, 4061, 4126, 4798). In the autumn of 1514 he was nominated joint ambassador to the Lateran council, but sickness apparently prevented his departure. In 1520 he was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. In 1522 Shrewsbury was appointed steward of the Duke of Buckingham's lands, and in the same year he was placed in command of the English army sent to the Scottish borders against John Stewart, duke of Albany [q. v.] But his health was bad and his conduct feeble, and he was soon superseded by the Earl of Surrey. When the divorce question came on, Shrewsbury supported it, and gave evidence at Catherine's trial (his depositions are extant in Cotton. MS. Vitellius, B. xii. ff. 70, 98), and he signed the letter to the pope urging him to grant the divorce. He also signed the articles against Wolsey in 1529, and entertained the cardinal at Sheffield Castle, on his way to London, after his arrest. It was there that Wolsey contracted the disease that proved fatal at Leicester Abbey. In 1532 Shrewsbury was again in command of an army on the Scottish borders.

The dissolution of the monasteries brought Shrewsbury many grants; among them were Wilton, Shrewsbury, Byldwas, Welbeck, and Combermere Abbeys, and the priories of Tutbury and Wenlock. When the rebellion in the north broke out in October 1536, Shrewsbury promptly raised forces on his own authority, and 'his courage and fidelity on this occasion perhaps saved Henry's crown' (Froude, iii. 109). The spread of the rising was checked by his action, and time given for the royal levies to arrive. Shrewsbury served through 1536 and 1537 under the Duke of Norfolk, and next to the duke was mainly instrumental in the suppression of the revolt. Under an act of parliament, 28 Henry VIII, he was considered, as an absentee, to have forfeited the earldom of Waterford and his Irish estates. He died, aged 70, at his manor of Wingfield, Derbyshire, on 26 July 1538, and was buried at Sheffield Castle (Vincent and other peerage historians assign his death to 1541). His will, dated 21 Aug. 1537, was proved on 13 Jan. 1538-9.

Shrewsbury married first, about 1486, Anne, daughter of William Hastings, first baron Hastings [q. v.], by whom he had eleven children. The eldest son, Henry, died an infant, and the second, Francis Talbot, fifth earl of Shrewsbury [q. v.], is separately noticed. He married, secondly, about 1512, Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Sir Richard Walden of Erith, Kent. By her, who died in July 1567, he had issue one daughter, Anne (d. 1588), who married as her second husband William Herbert, first earl of Pembroke of the second creation [q. v.]

[For fuller details of Shrewsbury's career see Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. i-xiii, which contain some two thousand references to him. Many letters from him are extant among the Cotton MSS. in the Brit. Museum, and in the Talbot Papers which were presented to the College of Arms by Henry Howard, sixth duke of Norfolk. These papers were largely used by Lodge in his Illustrations of British Hist. See also Campbell's Materials for the Reign of Henry VII, Gairdner's Letters and Papers, Henry VII, and Andreas's Historia (all in Rolls Ser.); Rymer's Foedera; Rolls of Parl. vol. vi.; State Papers Henry VIII; Cals. of Rutland and Hatfield MSS. (Hist. MSS. Comm.); Polydore Vergil's Historia; Hall's Chron.; Wriothesley's Chron. (Camden Soc.); Herbert's Life and Reign of Henry VIII; Burnet's Hist. of the Reformation; Pocock's Records of the Reformation; Cavendish and Fiddes's Lives of Wolsey; Archæologia, iii. 213, 219, xiii. 265, xxxi. 167, 173; Peerages by Collins, Burke, Doyle, and G. E. C[okayne]; Hunter's Hallamshire; Brewer's Reign of Henry VIII; Froude's Hist. of England (in the index to which Shrewsbury is confused with his son, the fifth earl).]
A. F. P. 
Talbot, George 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, KG, KB, PC (I16863)
 
2187 TALBOTT, Albert Gallatin, (uncle of William Clayton Anderson), a Representative from Kentucky; born near Paris, Bourbon County, Ky., April 4, 1808; moved with his parents to Clark County in 1813 and to Jessamine County in 1818; attended Forrest Hill Academy, Jessamine County, Ky.; studied law, but did not practice; engaged in agricultural pursuits and general trading in 1831; moved to Mercer County in 1838 and engaged in the real estate business; moved to Danville, Boyle County, Ky., in 1846; delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1849; member of the State house of representatives in 1850; elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth Congresses (March 4, 1855-March 3, 1859); chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office Department (Thirty-fifth Congress); resumed real estate pursuits; served in the State senate 1869-1873; again a member of the State house of representatives in 1883; moved to Pennsylvania and settled near Chestnut Hill, and engaged in agricultural pursuits; died in Philadelphia on September 9, 1887; interment in Bellevue Cemetery, Danville, Ky.

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 
Talbott, Hon. Albert Gallatin (I4583)
 
2188 Tallahassee Democrat
Sunday, August 27, 1978

Emma McDougall Dead After Illness
Howard Wireback

Emma Trammell McDougall, the last private owner of the historic Brokaw-McDougall home, died Friday after a long illness.

Mrs. McDougall owned the Meridian Street house until 1973 when the antebellum structures was sold to the state. Built in 1856, it is now used as the headquarters of the Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board and as a meeting place for state dignitaries.

The home was built by the grandfather of Mrs. McDougall's husband, the late Peres Brokaw McDougall.

The structure is known widely as a well-preserved example of elegant Old South architecture.

Mrs. McDougall, longtime librarian at Walker Library, was the sister of former Governor and U.S. Senator Park Trammell.

After selling the house to the state, she moved to the Floridian Hotel and had lived at 111 North Calhoun St. since the closing of the local hostelry.

"When they closed the hotel, she was very saddened and disappointed," said her nephew, W. Graham Harrison. "She was quoted in the newspaper as saying she had expected to spend the rest of her life there."

According to preservation board president Nancy Dobson, Mrs. McDougall and her husband took extremely good care of the home.

"They had a preservation project themselves in just living there and keeping up that house." Mrts. Dobson said. "They went to great lengths to replace its furnishings with exact reproductions."

Mrs. McDougall's husband was a banker and Tallahassee city commissioner.

His grandfather arrived in Tallahassee in 1840 from New Jersey. He began building the house in 1856. Brokaw died in 1875.

Mrs. McDougall was a native of Lakeland and had lived in Tallahassee for most of her life.

Survivors include a brother, Wilson Trammell of Miami, and Harrison of Tallahassee.

Funeral services will be Monday in Old City Cemetery at 11 am. Culley & Sons Funeral Home is in charge of arrangements.
 
Trammell, Emma Celeste (I3197)
 
2189 TANCRED (d. 1112), nephew of Bohemund and a grandson of Robert Guiscard on the female side, was the son of a certain Marchisus, in whom some have seen a marquis, and some an Arab (Makrizi). He took the Cross with Bohemund in 1096, and marched with him to Constantinople. Here he refused to take an oath to Alexius, escaping across the Bosphorus in the disguise of a peasant; but after the capture of Nicaea he consented to follow the example of the other princes, and became the man of Alexius. At Heraclea, in the centre of Asia Minor, he left the main body of the Crusaders, and struck into Cilicia, closely followed by Baldwin of Lorraine. He may have been intending, in this expedition, to prepare a basis for Bohemund's eastern principality; in any case, he made himself master of Tarsus, and when he was evicted from it by the superior forces of Baldwin, he pushed further onwards, and took the towns of Adana and Mamistra. He joined the main army before Antioch, and took a great part in the siege. When, in the spring of 1098, two castles were erected by the crusaders, it was Tancred who undertook the defence of the more exposed castle, which lay by St George's Gate, on the west of the city. In the beginning of 1099 he was serving in the ranks of Raymund's army, whether to observe his movements in the interests of Bohemund, or only (as is more probable) to be in the front of the fighting and the march to Jerusalem. But he soon left the count, like so many of the other pilgrims (see under Raymund); and he joined himself to Godfrey of Lorraine in the final march. In June 1099 he helped Baldwin de Burg (his future rival) in the capture of Bethlehem; and he played his part in the siege of Jerusalem, gaining much booty when the city was captured, and falling into a passion because the security he had given to the fugitives on the roof of Solomon's temple was not observed by the crusaders. After the capture of Jerusalem he went to Naplous, and began to found a principality of his own. He took part in the battle of Ascalon in August; and after it he was invested by Godfrey with Tiberias and the principality of Galilee, to the north of Naplous. In 1100 he attempted, without success, to prevent Baldwin of Lorraine (his old enemy in Cilicia) from acquiring the throne of Jerusalem, possibly having ambitions himself, and in any case fearing the foundation of a strong non-Norman power in Palestine. Failing in this attempt, and being urgently summoned from the North to succeed Bohemund (now a prisoner with Danishmend) in the government of Antioch, he surrendered his smaller possessions to Baldwin, on condition that they should be restored if he returned in a year and three months, and finally left the kingdom of Jerusalem. He acted as regent in Antioch from 1100 to 1103, when Bohemund regained his liberty. During these years he succeeded in regaining the Cilician towns for Antioch (1101), and in recapturing Laodicea (1103); he imprisoned Raymund of Toulouse, and only gave him his liberty on stringent conditions; and he caused the restoration of the deposed patriarch of Jerusalem, Dagobert, if only for a brief season, by refusing to aid Baldwin I. on any other terms. When Bohemund was set free, Tancred had to surrender Antioch to him; but he soon found fresh work for his busy hands. In 1104 he joined with Bohemund and Baldwin de Burg (now count of Edessa in succession to Baldwin of Lorraine) in an expedition against Harran, in which they were heavily defeated, and Baldwin was taken prisoner. Tancred, however, profited doubly by the defeat. He took over the government of Edessa in Baldwin's place; and in 1105 Bohemund surrendered to him the government of Antioch, while he himself went to Europe to seek reinforcements. Ruler of the two northern principalities, Tancred carried on vigorous hostilities against his Mahommedan neighbours, especially Ridwan of Aleppo; and in 1106 he succeeded in capturing Apamea. In 1107, while Bohemund was beginning his last expedition against Alexius, he wrested the whole of Cilicia from the Greeks; and he steadfastly refused, after Bohemund's humiliating treaty at Durazzo in 1108, to agree to any of its stipulations with regard to Antioch and Cilicia. To the hostility of the Mahommedans and the Greeks, Tancred also added that of his own fellow Latins. When Baldwin de Burg regained his liberty in 1108, it was only with difficulty that he was induced to restore Edessa to him, and the two continued unfriendly for some time; while in 1109 he also interfered in the civil war in Tripoli between the nephew and the eldest son of Raymund of Toulouse. But it was against the emirs of Northern Syria that his arms were chiefly directed; and he became the hammer of the Turks, restlessly attacking the emirs on every side, but especially in Aleppo, and exacting tribute from them all. He died in 1112, leaving the government to his brother-in-law, Roger de Principatu, until such time as Bohemund II. should come to his inheritance.

Bibliography. Tancred's Gesta were recorded by Ralph of Caen, who drew his information from Tancred's own conversation and reminiscences. Kugler has written a work on Bohemund und Tancred (Tübingen, 1862); and Tancred's career is also described by Rey, in the Revue de l'Orient Latin, iv. 334-340. (E. Br.) 
Hauteville, Tancred de Prince of Antioch (I19272)
 
2190 Tancred acted in Bohémond's stead after his capture at the Battle of Melitene and subsequent imprisonment. Hauteville, Tancred de Prince of Antioch (I19272)
 
2191 Tate died at Montpelier, his plantation. Tate, David (I5033)
 
2192 Tennessee State Marriages, 1780-2002, Nashville, TN, USA: Tennessee State Library and Archives Source (S174727)
 
2193 TERRY, JOHN TALIAFERRO, lawyer, was born August 31, 1831, in Chester District, S. C., and died June 16, 1890, at Birmingham; son of John W. and Emily (Taliaferro) Terry, who were of English and Norman extraction, their ancestors settling in America early in the sixteenth century, and lived in Chester District, S. C., until 1835, when they moved to Alabama, locating on a farm near Pickensville; grandson of John and Priscilla (Stokes) Terry, of Chester District, S. C. Upon the death of his father in 1841, Mr. Terry was placed under the guardianship of Col. Robert Johnston. He attended the University of Alabama in 1846 and 1847; entered the law class of the University of Louisville in 1850, but was forced to return home on account of ill health; taught school in 1852; was licensed to practice law in that year; opened a law office in partnership with Mr. Johnston, in Carrollton, 1853; was appointed registrar in chancery for Pickens County by Chancellor Clark in 1854; resigned that office in the following year, to devote himself more fully to his practice; was an unsuccessful candidate for the State legislature from Pickens County, 1856; formed a law partnership with Hon. Turner Reavis in 1857; entered the C. S. Army in 1862 as first lieutenant of an infantry company, and served in the field until 1863, when he was honorably discharged because of ill health; resumed the practice of law in Carrollton in 1865; moved from Pickens County to Birmingham in 1872, and continued the practice of law there until a few years before his death; was city attorney for Birmingham for one year; was superintendent of education for some time; was a Whig and later a Democrat; a Methodist; and a Mason. Married: (1) in March, 1858, to Elizabeth Kerr, who died July 7, 1873, daughter of William and Sarah Kerr of Sumter County; (2) June 18, 1874, to Elizabeth Taylor of Greene County; Children, by first marriage: 1. Reavis J., New York; 2. Minnie, m. A. O. Lane (q. v.); 3. William Kerr, lawyer, attorney for board of revenue for Jefferson County, trustee of Alabama polytechnic institute, Birmingham; 4. Helen J., m. Henry L. Badham, Birmingham; 5. John T., deceased; 6. Percy W., deceased; by second marriage: 7. Benjamin T., New York. Last residence: Birmingham. Terry, John Taliaferro (I16387)
 
2194 Texas Department of Health, Texas Death Indexes, 1903-2000, Austin, TX, USA: Texas Department of Health, State Vital Statistics Unit Source (S065099)
 
2195 Texas, Texas Birth Index, 1903-1997, Texas: Texas Department of State Health Services Source (S228138)
 
2196 The 1850 Federal Census for Hancock County, Georgia (LN 27-38, HN 145, FN 149) lists as follows:

1. Alpheus Dickinson, age 51, a farmer valued at $1,800.00;
2. Lucinda V. Dickinson, age 31
3. Joseph J., age 18;
4. Ann E., age 15;
5. Amanda C., age 14;
6. James M., age 12;
7. John W., age 11;
8. Jesse M., age 7;
9. Martha A., age 3;
10. Darins G., age 2;
11. Susan E., age 5 months?; and
12. Francis Alsten, age 66.

There is a marriage license for Alpheus Dickinson and Lucinda V. Austin dated November 25, 1845. The ceremony was performed by Thomas I. Little, J.P. Source: Willie Kate Dickinson Henderson. There are Littles listed in the 1850 Federal Census.

If this is correct, it would suggest that the 6 children over the age of 5 were the issue of the union of Alpheus and his first wife, Penelope Askew. Indeed the oldest (Joseph) would have been born after 1828 (i.e., around 1832).

An "Alphaus" Dickinson is also listed (page 218, line 22) as the head of household in the 1840 Federal Census for Hancock County. There are 2 males listed to 5 years of age (John and James?); 1 between 5-10 (Joseph?); and 1 between 40-50 (Alpheus). There are 2 females between 5-10 (Ann and Amanda?); 3 between 20-30; and 1 between 50-60. He is listed with 2 males slaves to 10 years of age; 4 male slaves between the ages of 10-24; 2 between the ages of 24-36; 2 female slaves to 10 years of age; 6 females between the ages of 10-24; and 3 females from 24-36; 19 slaves in all. The total for the hosehold is listed at 29. 11 persons in the family are listed as employed in agriculture.

An "Alphens Dickenson" is listed in the 1830 Federal Census. The total for the household is 13, of which 10 are slaves. Source: Page 151, line 15.

* * * *

Hancock County: Wills & Estates: Account of Sales of the perishable
property of George D. Lewis dec’d 26th February 1830

3 turning plows F. G. Thomas 3.75
2 scooter ditto,
singletrees & clevises Eli H. Baxter 1.18 ¾
2 do do do do Eli H. Baxter 1.06 ¼
1 lot plow hoes Hamlin Lewis 1.75
3 pr. Plow gear Eli H. Baxter 2.00
12 weeding hoes Hamlin Lewis 2.00
2 club axes Jeremiah Jackson 2.00
2 ditto F. G. Thomas .75
1 chopping axe Silas Plunket .75
2 iron wedges C. Walker 1.00
3 grubbling hoes Amos Johnston .81 ¼
2 spades John Evans 1.31 ¼
1 pr hinges & bands Amos Johnston .75
1 bar steele 8 ¾ lb @ 183¢ per lb Silas Plunket 1.13 ¼
1 bar iron 81 “ @ 6 ¼ Wiley Allen 5.06 ¼
1 lot tools Eli Johnson 2.56 ¼
1 scythe blade Eli H. Baxter 1.50
1 pr flat iron & lead James Reese 1.50
1 cutting knife & ? Richard Hardwick 2.00
2 raw hides S. H. Russel 1.50
1 pr fire dogs James Shivers 1.375
1 lot nails & fire tongs & shovel James Shivers 1.31 ¼
2 kegs & vinegar James Shivers 1.00
1 spinning wheel & cards James Shivers 1.375
1 “ “ “ William P. Ford 1.675
1 “ “ “ William P. Ford 1.25
1 T. Kettle, trivet,ladle & gridiron William Jackson 2.31 ¼
1 pot William P. Ford .81 ¼
1 oven W. Thomas 2.25
1 bed, bedstead & furniture D. W. Thomas 29.00
1 “ & furniture D. W. Thomas 11.00
1 bed, bedstead & furniture A. Dickerson 10.00
1 “ “ “ “ Jas. Shivers 14.00
1 walnut bedstead M. Thomas 2.00
1 dressing table F. G. Thomas .50
1 shot gun B. Shivers 11.50
1 sword Matthew Turner 6.00
1 trunk Theophilus Thomas .12 ½
1 trunk Wm. Peck 1.18 ¾
1 large trunk F. G. Thomas .31 ¼
1 “ “ Wm. Lewis .50
1 “ “ “ “ .50
1 chest “ “ .12 ½
1 lot jugs F. G. Thomas 1.00
1 lot dining & breadfast plates James Shivers 1.43 ¾
8 blue plates Allen Gilbert .87 ½
10 “ “ “ “ 1.06 ¼
1 set small “ Amos Johnston .18 ¾
1 “ cups & saucers & cream pot H. J. Jackson .81 ¼
1 “ “ “ “ “ William Claybrook 1.25
1 “ “ “ “ “ James Shivers .31 ¼
1 sugar dish & Tea pot Allen Gilbert .58 ¼
1 lot plates funnell, spoon & tin pan Amos Johnson .37 ½
2 bowls & pitcher James Shivers .81 ¼
1 pitcher Amos Johnston .31 ¼
1 ditto F. G. Thomas .50
1 pr. Pitchers Isaac Culver 1.75
2 dishes Jas. Shivers .50
1 Blue dishes William Jackson .50
Amount Brought forward 174.50 ¼
1 looking glass F. G. Thomas 1.00
1 lot books Mat. Turner 1.62 ½
1 walnut desk Ashfield Johnson 5.00
1 walnut table Mrs. Lewis 2.00
1 pine side-board & cover Mrs. Denson .50
1 cup-board F. G. Thomas 6.12 ¼
½ doz windsor chairs Myles G. Harris 6.00
8 split bottom chairs F. G. Thomas 3.93 ¾
56 lb. Sugar at 13¢ per lb. Jas. Shivers 7.23
8 ¾ lb. Coffee @ 16¢ per lb. Wm. B. Thompson 1.40
1 bag dried apples S. H. Russel .65 ¾
1 “ “ “ Matthew Turner .31 ¼
1 “ “ peaches F. Barefield .43 ¼
1 mans saddle do do 15.12 ½
1 saddle cover Y. Vinson 5.56 ¼
1 bridle & Martingale G. Moss Jr. 3.25
1 bed cover F. G. Thomas .57 ½
1 lot bed clothes & table cover do do 3.06 ½
1 slate P. H. Drake .25
1 trumpet A. Johnson .18 ¾
5 barrels corn at 3 dollars barrel Thomas Norwood 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ Jas. Shivers 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ Edwin Wiley 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ A. P. King 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ Jas. Shivers 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ R. S. Hardwick 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ do do 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ A. P. King 15.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ Eli Champion}
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ do do } 30.00
5 “ do “ 3 “ “ John Brown 15.00
1 stack fodder 6th choice 492# 271¢ per hund.
Eli Johnston 3.50
1 “ “ 7 “ 500 “ “ “
“ “ 3.55
5 bushel peas @ 45¢ bushel Ashfield Johnson 2.25
5 “ “ “ 40 “ Jas. B. Reese 2.00
5 “ “ “ 40 “ John Evans 2.00
4 “ “ “ 32 “ A. E. Reese 1.28
1 “ rye “ 50 “ Y. W. Rassetter .50
1 red cow & yearling A. E. Reeves 10.06 ¼
1 “ “ A. Dickerson 10.12 ½
1 brindle heifer do do 6.75
1 white face cow Allen Gilbert 2.31 ¼
1 black bull Micajah Thomas 6.00
3 yearlings Thomas Norwood 7.00
1 dun heifer “ “ 5.00
1 sow & eight pigs first choice Joseph Bryan Sr. 5.00
1 sow & eight pigs second choice Frances Denson 5.00
1 sow & six pigs third Joseph Bryan 3.00
1 white sow P. H. Drake 2.00
4 first choice hogs Alphaus Dickinson 7.00
4 second choice hogs do do 5.25
1 grey mule F. G. Thomas 94.00
1 bay mule R. L. Hardwick 66.00
1 sorrel horse D. W. Thomas 126.00
1 gig & harness Allen Gilbert 200.00
1 ox cart William P. Ford 13.75
200# green bacon 10 ¾¢ per lb. John Orear 21.50
200# “ “ 10 ½¢ “ “ “ “ 21.00
200# “ “ 10 ½¢ “ “ I. P. Leverett 21.00
200# “ “ 10 ¼¢ “ “ Ryal Black 20.25
200# “ “ 10 ¼¢ “ “ “ “ 20.25
200# “ “ 10¢ “ “ I. P. Leverett 20.00
17 chickens at 14¢ I. Bryan Jr. 2.38
15 bushels potatoes at 22 ½ cents bush Amos Johnson 3.37 ½
4 bushels peas “ 32 “ “ 1.28
94 salt Y. G. Thomas 1.25
1 gin, band & crowbar do do 26.00
1 watch Mrs. Lewis 1.00
1 basket & pan I. Bryan Jr. .25
1 pr. Saddlebags George Amos 1.00
1 pr. Candle moulds A. Bruce .25
1 set knives and forks Y. G. Thomas 1.00
1 “ “ “ Eli H. Basten .56 ¼
1 pen shucks Clark Dickerson 1.43 ½
1 side leather Whitfield Thomas 1.25
4 bushel peas @ 32 Eli Champion 1.28
3 ¼ “ “ “ 32 Whitfield Thomas 1.
1266.40 ½

Account of the hireing for the year 1830
Fountain to Jeffrey Laine 80.00
Ben “ Benj. Cook 70.00
Harry “ Nathan Cook 50.50
Hannah “ John H. Lewis 35.25
Amy the younger “ Jas. Shivers 20.00
Hincken “ Micajah Thomas 15.25
Mansfield “ Amos Johnston 4.50
Dolly “ J. Lane 31.00
Amy “ Jas. Shivers 46.00
Nelly & 2 children Jones McLemon 1.00
Joan “ Jno Wells 12.00
Rose “ F. G. Thomas 4.25

 
Dickinson, Alpheus (I1853)
 
2197 The "best knight that ever lived." Stephen Langton (c. 1150 - 9 July 1228), Archbishop of Canterbury. Marshal, William 1st Earl of Pembroke (I11102)
 
2198 The "Big House" was built ca. 1835-1845 and burned in 1935. The Arcadia Mill site has been subject of archaeological digs by the Univesity of West Florida. Simpson, Ezekiel Ewing (I15239)
 
2199 The 1850 census gives the date of birth as 1815. Both the 1850 and 1860 enumerations are fairly consistent in giving a twenty year age difference between husband and wife. The marriage date given by Waters is problematic. Dees, Lavisa (I0583)
 
2200 The 1850 date on the headstone conflicts pretty consistently with census records. Hightower, W Richard (I5972)
 

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