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Families on the Frontiers of the Old South

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1
http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/DOVER/1999-02/0918177767
From: "GAYLE CALABRESE"
Subject: [DOVER-L] Samuel and Susan Campbell Dover's Line part A

The following info is mostly for the benefit of those Dovers who are descended from Susan Campbell Dover ref: as subject. I have been communicating with a descendant of Susan's son by a first marriage, Hardaway Youngblood. There has never been any "proof" of this marriage, or that Hardaway was actually her son until now. They are as certain that he was her son, even though there isn't a marriage record for them, any more than there is proof of one for most of the unions that we recognize. There are for them, bible records, and various printed biographies to support this. The most significant things that I rec'd a copies of included a letter from Susan to her daughter Eliza, that was written during the Civil War, a photo of Susan's son, Hardaway , and a copy of a statement from JD Worthington, a greatgrandson of Hardaway Youngblood that was part of a biography of John Marion Bolton. Susan's letter was written in 1863. It makes reference to having rec'd a letter from her son Thomas [my greatgreat grandfather married to Nancy Ross] who was in the confederate army, and what he related about the conditions there. She says that "Bryant was at Dalton the other day and the report there was that Longstreet's men was cut to pieces dreadful on the 8th day of the month though I hope it is a fals report." She talks about a group of 60 yankees stealing the horses and mules. Names mentioned are "the McCamy's, Howels, James Crow, the Bryants family, and that man Cook. She closes with, " Adaline [Dover] sends her love to you all, and give our love to all of the children and except [accept] the same yourselves we remain with love and respect, your Affectionate Father and Mother and Sister till
separated by Death. Samuel and Susan Dover to John M. & Eliza E. Bolton and family, Farewell."
If any of her descendants would like to have copies, I will be glad to cpy & send it to them....just let me know.

* * * *
http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/DOVER/1999-02/0918179083
From: "GAYLE CALABRESE"
Subject: [DOVER-L] Samuel and Susan Campbell Dover Part B

>From the biography of John Marion Bolton, grandfather of JD Worthington. [He preached at ten known churches in Ga.]

The heading is " 406th Dist. Ga. Militia. PICKNEYVILLE SETTLEMENT. Gwinnett County, Ga.

" In 1830 a stagecoach ran through Lawrenceville, Pinckneyville, and to Bennington, Alabama. Pinckneyville was a village with a post office. It was a trading post and a stagecoach stop, it also had a Inferior Courthouse located there. In 1870 this courthouse was moved to Norcross, Ga.

In 1813-1818, the first settlement established near what is now Lawrenceville, was Hog Mountain, There was a fort there called Fort Daniel in 1812. Hog Mountain gave way to was is now know as Lawrenceville, nearby."

"Samuel Dover married Susan Campbell Youngblood about 1828, for my grandmother their oldest child was born 7/17/1829, some where near Lawrenceville. According to my uncle Tom Bolton, Samuel Dover drove a stagecoach about 1820, between Augusta, Gainesville, and Dalton, Ga. when Dalton was in Murray County. Perhaps that is why Samuel Dove moved from Gwinnett County in 1850 to Murray County, where the 1860 census reveals that he had reside there for 10 years. He died and is buried there.

There can be no doubt that Samuel Dover was in Pinckneyville many times, because it to was a stagecoach stop. John Marion Bolton was appointed Captain of the 406 District, Pinckneyville, 11/25/1848, by Governor George W. Towns of Milledgeville, at age 23 1/2. This indicates he was a man of good character. This was 2 months and 7 days before he married grandma, Eliza E. Dover, 2/11/1849.
The 1850 census of Gwinnett County Ga. list John Marion Bolton as a school master, age 25, born in SC. His wife, Eliza E. Dover is listed as age 22. They had one child James Samuel Bolton, age 9 monts. Their marriage license is on file in Book 4, pg. 106, Court of the Ordinary, Lawrenceville, Ga. Marriage records for Gwinnett County begin with 1844, due to a fire about 1871, many records were destroyed, hence my failure to findthe marriage record, if there, of Samuel Dover.

My Maternal GGrandparents, Samuel and Susan Campbell Youngblood Dover, were both born in SC, according to the 1850 census of Gwinnett County, and the 1860 census of Murray Co. These censuses supply their ags from which their birth years can be determined.

Today Pinckneyville is a cross-roads settlement including Mt. Carmel Methodist Churchyard where Hardaway Youngblood lies buried, only child of Susan Campbell Youngblood Dover by her lst marriage to a Youngblood. His identity was first made know to me over 40 years ago by uncle Tom Bolton.
Hardaway Youngblood was a half brother of Eliza E. Dover Bolton and upon his mother's marriage to Samuel Dover, grew up with the Dover family for some years. So close were they that grandma Bolton named her 2nd son, William Hardaway Bolton for him. [Church and cemetery established 1826] "

A few lines follow regarding Kate Bolton's Bible, copies , and Alice Youngblood great granddaughter of Susan, being the only direct descendant living near Pinckneyville. This was compiled by J.D. Worthington in 1967.

* * * *
http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/DOVER/1999-02/0918180278
The following notes come from a "Lineage of Susan Campbell" compiled by James D. Worthington along with notes from Alice Youngblood, both great grandchildren of Susan's.

Susan Campbell b. 1802, in SC. Based on 1850 Gwinnett Co. Ga. Census and 1860 Murray Co. Census. According to uncle Tom Bolton, Susan died in Ozark County, Evening Shade, Ark. having gone there because her oldest son, Samuel Zachary Dover lived there. She was buried there. Her son, Hardaway Youngblood was b. ca. 1819. Died 1899 buried Mt. Carmel Churchyard. He married Elizabeth Duncan in 1846. According to Alice Youngblood he was in the Civil war. He had 5 sons and 2 daughters.

1. Robert Anderson Youngblood, [married to Mary Palmer Haynie in 1873] born Feb.14,1848, Gwinnett Co. d. 12/28/1928. Age 80.

2.John Youngblood

3. Dave Youngblood

4. Frank Youngblood

5. William Youngblood

6. Catherine

7. a girl ?

Alice Youngblood is a daughter of Robert Anderson Youngblood. The genealogy of Susan's goes on to include reference to Samuel being buried in Murray Co. Ga., and list their 9 children. With Eliza Dover Bolton, b. 7/17/1829 died 5/9/1900 buried Milner, Ga. and the years of the other children's births attributed to the ages given in the census of Gwinnett Co. for 1850. " Samuel Dover resided in Gwinnett County for at least 21 years from 1828 until the 1850's when he moved to Murray County Ga."

Considering that the family of Susan Campbell is unknown, as was the family of Hardaway Youngblood, it is notable to see the names of his children as being common "Dover" names. Afterall, this probably is the family he related to, and it was a common pracitice to name children after family. 
Campbell, Susan (I0187)
 
2
Pike County, Journal
Zebulon, GA., Friday, April 10, 1891

Dr. John McDowell, a prominent young physician of Macon died at the home of his mother in Barnesville last Sunday. He was a son of the late Dr. George McDowell, and a brother of P.H. McDowell, a telegraph operator at Griffin. From a physician who was well acquainted with the deceased, we learn that his death was due to cigarette smoking.

(Transcribed 10/17/02 Lynn Cunningham)

Note:
At Zebulon Road Cemetery Lamar (formerly Pike) County:
Dr. J.M. McDowell, b. 16 Mar 1861, d. 5 Apr 1891
Also his father:
Dr. G.M. McDowell, b. 26 July 1834, d. 21 July 1883

http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/ga/pike/obits/1890s/mcdowell.txt 
McDowell, Dr. John M (I1372)
 
3 Putnam D. SIMS Self M Male W 22 GA Engineer GA GA
Rosa SIMS Wife M Female W 20 GA Keeping Hou
Edner SIMS Dau S Female W 2 GA GA GA
Rosa B. SIMS Dau S Female W 1 GA GA GA
Martha CLAYTON Other S Female B 11 GA Nurse GA GA
Love CLAYTON Other S Female B 9 GA Nurse GA GA
William CLAYTON Other S Male B 6 GA GA GA
Annie Lee CLAYTON Other S Female B 4 GA GA GA

Source Information:
Census Place Grantville, Coweta, Georgia
Family History Library Film 1254142
NA Film Number T9-0142
Page Number 522A  
Simms, Putnam Dickinson (I1263)
 
4 "10th September 1796. JOEL DICKENSON of Hancock County to ROBERT SIMMS of same place for the sume of one hundred and fourteen pounds for a tract of land containing one hundred and eighty two and a half acres in Hancock County on the waters of the Beaverdam of Ogeechee and adjoining WILLIAMSON's line and by FEW's corner. Wit: Will Dent, J.P. and H. (illegible). Reg: 30th September 1801."

Abstract at Helen and Tim Marsh, compilers, Land Deed Genealogy of Hancock County, Georgia (Greenville, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press 1997), p. 268. Deed Book E, p. 269.  
Simms, Robert III (I0306)
 
5 "Charles Weatherford was the second and last husband of Sehoy McPherson. They raised four children that I knew. Betsy, the oldest child, married Sam Moniac, and was the mother of Major David Moniac, who was educated at West Point and was killed by the Seminoles in the fall of 1836- he was educated at West Point in consequence of the faithful and disinterested friendship of his father to the whites. Billy was the next oldest, Jack next, and a younger daughter whose name I have forgotten. She married Capt. Shumac, a very intelligent officer of the United States army." Family F1373
 
6 "Charles Weatherford was the second and last husband of Sehoy McPherson. They raised four children that I knew. Betsy, the oldest child, married Sam Moniac, and was the mother of Major David Moniac, who was educated at West Point and was killed by the Seminoles in the fall of 1836- he was educated at West Point in consequence of the faithful and disinterested friendship of his father to the whites. Billy was the next oldest, Jack next, and a younger daughter whose name I have forgotten. She married Capt. Shumac, a very intelligent officer of the United States army." Family F1354
 
7 "A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for 'envoy[s] of the lord [ruler]' or palace inspector, also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or Holy Roman Emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions too remote for frequent personal visits. As such, the missus performed important intermediary functions between royal and local administrations. There are superficial points of comparison with the original Roman corrector, except that the missus was sent out on a regular basis. Four points made the missi effective as instruments of the centralized monarchy: the personal character of the missus, yearly change, isolation from local interests and the free choice of the king." Azzo, Alberto I Margrave of Milan (I19126)
 
8 "A covert marriage must have seemed liked a policy to have very few serious risks and a number of positive advantages: this was a bride who could demonstrate Edward's commitment to evenhanded kingship, but whose family was not so grand or proud as to feel they had anything to gain by wrecking his trust." Family F2561
 
9 "A day or so after, one of my scouts brought news of eighty or a hundred Indians camped on the east side of the Alabama, near what is now called Dale's Ferry. I took sixty men, intending to bury Jack Evans, and, if practicable, attack the enemy. Crossing the river in two canoes, which I had previously concealed, we spent the night in the canebrake. At daylight I manned each canoe with five picked men, and directed them to move cautiously up the river, while the rest of us followed the trail which ran along the bank. I considered that the canoes would be useful if we had to retreat or cross the river, or to carry our wounded. When we reached Bailey's, whose cabins were on the east, and his corn-crib and field on the westbank, we discovered two Indian canoes, laden with corn, paddling up stream. I ordered Jerry Austill to lay his canoes under the bluff and conceal his men from the Indians until I could get ahead of them. Unfortunately, the path left the river bank on account of swamp and cane-brakes, and so continued two and a half miles before it again approached the river. The Indians had, doubtless, perceived my canoes from the first, and I now saw them moving rapidly up, still far above us. We pushed on at a lively rate, George Foster and myself being a hundred yards in advance of the others. At an abrupt turn of the path we suddenly encountered five warriors. The file-leader leveled his rifle, but, before he could pull trigger, I shot him down. Foster shot the next, and the rest broke into the cane-brake. The leader of the party was Will Milfort, three quarters white, tall, handsome, intelligent, and prepossessing, and a strong attachment existed between us. He camped with me at the great council of Took-a-batcha, and privately informed me when Tecumseh was about to speak. By the influence of Weatherford he joined the hostiles, and was on his first war-path when he met his fate. We recognized each other in a moment; there was a mutual exclamation of surprise- a pang of regret, perhaps- but no time for parley. I dropped a tear over his body, and often bewail the destiny that doomed him to fall by the hand of his best friend. Such are the dreadful necessities of war. Some time after I sought and interred his fleshless bones; they now moulder on the banks of the river he loved so well; and often since, in my solitary bivouac, in the dead of night, have I fancied that I heard his wailing voice in the tops of the aged pines. Even now my heart bleeds for poor Will." Milfort, Will (I6024)
 
10 "A large number of the following invitations were issued to favored recipients yesterday: Mrs. M. E. Dickinson requests the pleasure of your presence at the wedding reception of her daughter Effie Pauline, and Dr. Henry Jackson Garland, Wednesday evening, December 18th, from half past eight until eleven o'clock, Meriwether Street, Griffin, Georgia." The Weekly News, December 13, 1889, reproduced at Fred R. Hartz and Emilie K. Hartz, Marriage and Death Notices From the Griffin (Georgia) Weekly News and The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, 1882-1896 (Vidalia, Georgia: The Gwendolyn Press), 164.

 
Family F0432
 
11 "A little way along Front street was Wall & Company's store, presided over by Mr. Fernando J. Moreno, who was also underwriter's agent. Mr. Moreno was a thorough American, though of foreign descent. Courtly, polite, with distinguished manners, he was to be seen each afternoon taking his constitutional on a pacing pony, out to the bush and South Beach. He was slightly deaf, and carried a silver ear trumpet gracefully suspended from his left arm, which strangers often took for a cornet, and a wag was once known to stop him with the question, "Old man, when are you going to give your concert?" Needless to say the question was not heard, for no man was familiar with Mr. Moreno with impunity. His chief assistant at that time was Mr. William McClintock, afterwards mayor of the city; a large, portly, powerful ex-man-of-war's-man from Philadelphia, who had had among other vicissitudes the experience of going down with the United States steamship Congress when she was sunk by the Merrimac." Moreno, Fernando Joaquin (I5054)
 
12 "A similar phrase ("juxta usitatam ecclesise Anglican* computationem" ["the use of the Church of England reckoning"]) occurs on the next slab, that of Hugh Poyntz, who died as a young man in March 1604. * * * The three here named, Edward, Hugh, and Robert, were sons of Sir Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton, by his second wife, the Lady Margaret Stanley, daughter of Edward, 3rd Earl of Derby." Poyntz of Tockington Park, Hugh (I11200)
 
13 "A similar phrase ("juxta usitatam ecclesise Anglican* computationem" ["the use of the Church of England reckoning"]) occurs on the next slab, that of Hugh Poyntz, who died as a young man in March 1604. * * * The three here named, Edward, Hugh, and Robert, were sons of Sir Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton, by his second wife, the Lady Margaret Stanley, daughter of Edward, 3rd Earl of Derby." Family F1806
 
14 "According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Enguerrand, Marguerite, Marie and Beatrix were born from their father's first marriage and Hugues and Guy from his third (in addition, it lists Flandrine whose parentage is uncertain as shown above). None of the sources...provide sufficient information to determine the marriage from which any of these children were born." Family F5925
 
15 "Afterwards, in May, Roger [de Mortimer] also probably attended the marriage of his eldest daughter Margaret with Thomas, the son and heir of Lord Berkeley, which secured an earlier alliance with an important lord of the Welsh Marches. Interestingly Berkeley and his adherent John Maltravers and Thomas Gurney had fallen out with the Earl of Pembroke [Aymer de Valence] at this time, and Berkeley's move towards Roger was a long-term political shift, not a mere interweaving of alliances but a vote of confidence in him as a leader." Family F3100
 
16 "Although Audley was an aging commander and his tactics had been seriously naive, he did not lack personal valor. He fought in the thick of the battle. But in the melee he was sought out by one Sir Roger Kynaston of Hordley, a retainer of the duke of York, who was among Salisbury's knights. In the open field, where the ground sloped gently downward, Audley eventually lost his valiant stand. He was hacked down and killed, and his assistant commander John Sutton, Lord Dudley, was taken prisoner. The loyalists had lost their leader and soon gave up the fight. The battle lasted a total of around four hours, and by the end of it perhaps two thousand men lay dead in the field, their blood seeping into the warm autumn soil." Touchet, James 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Touchet (I12382)
 
17 "Anthony Poyntz, third son of Sir Nicholas Poyntz, was admitted to the Inner Temple November 1567. He would seem to have turned out a disreputable character. In 1581 he is described as of Frampton, co. Gloucester, Gent., and received a pardon for divers felonies. He was convicted with others for the crime of having on 1st Nov. 1574 ill-treated and placed in much fear, so that his life was despaired of, on the highway at Frampton Leas, co. Glouc, one John Gurden, and having stolen from him feloniously £100 then on his person of money belonging to a certain John Parsons; also of a similar felony of having stolen from Conan Parsons a like sum of £100 (Pat. Tested at Westminster, 3rd May 1582.)" Poyntz of Frampton, Gloucester, Anthony (I3980)
 
18 "Approaching Sifilke on 10 June 1190, the emperor impatiently decided to ford the River Saleph ahead of his troops. His horse lost its footing mid-stream, throwing Frederick into the river - on a scorching-hot day the water proved shockingly cold, and unable to swim, the German emperor drowned." Staufen, Friedrich I von Holy Roman Emperor (I12829)
 
19 "As a Syrian prince, Reynald had a reputation for untamed violence, garnered from his attack on Greek-held Cyprus and his infamous attempts, around 1154, to extort money from the Latin patriarch of Antioch, Aimery of Limoges. The unfortunate prelate was beaten, dragged to the citadel and forced to sit through an entire day beneath the blazing sun, with his bare skin smeared in honey to attract swarms of of worrisome insects. In the late 1170s, however, Reynald became one of Baldwin's [IV] most trusted allies, furnishing him with able support in the fields of war, diplomacy and politics." Châtillon, Renaud de Prince of Antioch (I19194)
 
20 "At the residence of the bride at Hampton on yesterday afternoon at 6 o'clock Mr. John F. Dickerson, of this city, was united in marriage to Mrs. Mary Malone of the former place. The happy couple returned to this city on the accomodation and are domiciled at the residence of A. J. Allen."

The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, July 4, 1890, reproduced at Fred R. Hartz and Emilie K. Hartz, Marriage and Death Notices From the Griffin (Georgia) Weekly News and The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, 1882-1896 (Vidalia, Georgia: The Gwendolyn Press), 184.

 
Dickinson, John Franklin (I0069)
 
21 "Baldwin, by strategy and treachery, founded the first Latin Principality in the East (1098)." Boulogne, Baudouin I de King of Jerusalem (I17725)
 
22 "Benjamin Drake Wright was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania on January 23, 1799. Wright moved to Pensacola in the Spring of 1823. From 1824 to 1837 he was a member of the Legislative Council of the Territory of West Florida. Wright married Josephine de la Rua on February 23, 1826 and they had 8 children. He was a member of the 1838 Constitutional Convention, served in the Territorial Senate 1839-1840 and in the Florida Senate after statehood in 1845. He served as Supreme Court Chief Justice for 7 months in 1853 and was a member of the 1865 Constitutional Convention. Benjamin Drake Wright died in Pensacola, Florida on April 28, 1874."

 
Wright, Benjamin Drake (I15476)
 
23 "Brutus was within the Central New York Military Tract. The town was established in 1802 from the town of Aurelius." Sutton, Jeremiah (I17457)
 
24 "CALHOUN, Joseph, (cousin of John Caldwell Calhoun and John Ewing Colhoun), a Representative from South Carolina; born in Staunton, Augusta County, Va., October 22, 1750; moved with his father to South Carolina in 1756 and settled in Granville District, on Little River, near the present town of Abbeville; received a limited education; engaged in agricultural pursuits; served as a member of the South Carolina house of representatives in 1804 and 1805; colonel of State militia; elected as a Republican to the Tenth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Levi Casey; reelected to the Eleventh Congress and served from June 2, 1807, to March 3, 1811; declined to be a candidate for reelection in 1810 to the Twelfth Congress; resumed agricultural pursuits and engaged in milling; died in Calhoun Mills, Abbeville District (now Mount Carmel, McCormick County), April 14, 1817; interment in the family burying ground near his home."  Calhoun, Joseph (I15269)
 
25 "Charles Dickenson, of Mt. Zion District, a most excellent young man of twenty-four years, was taken sick on Thursday morning and died Thursday evening. His death was caused by some disease of the kidneys." The Weekly News, February 6, 1885, reproduced at Fred R. Hartz and Emilie K. Hartz, Marriage and Death Notices From the Griffin (Georgia) Weekly News and The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, 1882-1896 (Vidalia, Georgia: The Gwendolyn Press), 44. Dickinson, Charles E (I0594)
 
26 "Constance, widow of the King of France, was a woman of depraved heart and infamous character; but such was her ascendancy over her husband, that she committed crimes of the blackest dye with impunity." She conspired to have her younger son displace the elder on the throne of their father. Henry fled to Fecamp, enlisting the aid of Robert, Duke of Normany. Robert secured Henry's crown by falling on France with great slaughter.  d'Arles, Constance (I11162)
 
27 "Detailed as hospital steward Feby 2nd 1863 by order Maj. Boyles" Lane, Thomas S. M.D. (I16431)
 
28 "Drewry, James A., the present ordinary of Spalding county, is engaged in the practice of law in Griffin and is also a clergyman of the Baptist church. He was born in that county, Feb. 13, 1860, a son of Fenton H. And Margaret D. (Grigg) Drewry, the former born at Drewry's Bluff, Va., Dec. 26, 1820 and the latter near Jarratt, Sussex county, that state, Dec. 29, 1826. Fenton H. Drewry was a gallant soldier of the Confederacy during the Civil war, having been a member of a Georgia regiment of volunteers, and after the war he followed the vocation of farming. He departed this life on Jan. 4, 1906. James A. Drewry attended school in Griffin, Ga., Opelika, Ala., and Macon, Ga., and for a time was a student in the University of Georgia. After completing his educational discipline he was engaged in farming, in Spalding county, for thirteen years, and for three years thereafter was a merchant in Drewryville, that county. He then located at Griffin, where he has since been engaged in the practice of law, having been admitted to the bar in 1886. He is a stalwart supporter of the principles and policies of the Democratic party; has been incumbent of the office of ordinary of the county since 1896, and served for twelve years as postmaster of Drewryville. In 1896 he was ordained a minister of the Baptist church and has charges in Spalding, Pike and Monroe counties. Since his ordination he has performed over 1600 marriage ceremonies and officiated at more than 800 funerals. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Improved Order of Red Man. On Nov. 8, 1883, was solemnized the marriage of Dr. Drewry to Miss Blanche Strozier, of Greenville, Ga.

Blanche Strozier Drewry was born in Meriwether county, Ga., Aug. 11, 1866, and died in Griffin, Ga., April 25, 1906. She was the daughter of Ruben C. Strozier, was born in Meriwether county, Ga., June 30, 1839, and married Sarah Elizabeth Freeman, May 18, 1860. He served in the Confederate army in the war between the states. His parents were Peter Strozier, born March 22, 1806, and Mary W. Sherman, born May 22, 1811. They were married Feb. 16, 1826. Sarah Elizabeth Strozier, nee Freeman, was born Dec. 4, 1845, and died Feb. 20, 1887. Her parents were James Freeman, born in Wilkes county, Ga., and Patsy Rosser, date of birth unknown. Mr. and Mrs. J.A. Drewry had no children." 
Drewry, James Albert (I3134)
 
29 "Dryden's father died in June 1654, and left a small estate at Blakesley to his son. Malone etimates this at 60l. a year, of which 20l. went to his mother until her death in 1676 (Malone, pp.440-l)." Dryden of Tichmarsh, Erasmus (I6832)
 
30 "Duke Godrey, Seigneur of Bouillon (a small estate in Belgium), combined the qualities of soldier and monk- brave and competent in war and government, and pious to the point of fanaticism." Bouillon, Godefroi de Princeps of Jerusalem (I17724)
 
31 "Erasmus and Mary Dryden were married 21 Oct. 1630 at Pilton, near Aldwinkle (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 207). The Drydens (or Dridens), originally settled in Cumberland, had moved into Northamptonshire about the middle of the sixteenth century. Erasmus Dryden after his marriage lived at Tichmarsh, where the Pickerings had a seat." Family F4156
 
32 "Family tradition says that the Joel P. Dickinson cemetery was on the right side of Springfield Church Rd up toward the Greene County -- Hancock County line. The cemetery was at one time under a large oak and at the back of a field. This possible grave is under a very large oak, but there is no additional proof that this is, in fact, the Dickinson Cemetery. Further research is needed to confirm or refute that this is a cemetery, and, if it is, whether it is the Dickinson cemetery."

Friends of Hancock County, Georgia Cemeteries

http://www.friendsofcems.org/Hancock/default.htm

 
Dickinson, Joel Putnam (I0075)
 
33 "Filmore Leak, of Mt. Zion district, died on Tuesday and was buried yesterday afternoon at three o'clock." The Griffin Weekly News, June 22, 1888, reproduced at Fred R. Hartz and Emilie K. Hartz, Marriage and Death Notices From the Griffin (Georgia) Weekly News and The Griffin Weekly News and Sun, 1882-1896 (Vidalia, Georgia: The Gwendolyn Press), p. 131. Leake, Millard Filmore (I0608)
 
34 "For Manuel, the Second Crusade was a worrisome threat. As the Frankish armies approached the empire the emperor's concerns deepened to such an extent that he decided to secure his eastern frontier by agreeing a temporary truce with Ma'sud, the Seljuq sultan in Anatolia. To the Greeks this was a logical step that allowed Manuel to focus upon the thousands of Latin troops nearing his western borders. But, when they learned of the deal, many crusaders saw it as an act of treachery." Komnenos, Manuel I Byzantine Emperor (I19291)
 
35 "Fulk V, Count of Anjou from 1109, was by his first wife, Aremburga, heiress of Maine, the father of Count Geoffrey the Fair. Fulk 'led an honorable life, ruling his territory wisely.' He was 'an upright and virtuous man of orthodox faith [who] achieved a glorious and excellent reputation that was second to none.' According to William of Tyre, Fulk was 'a ruddy man, faithful and gentle, affable and kind, a powerful prince, and very successful ruling his people; an experienced warrior full of patience and wisdom in military affairs.'"
 
d'Anjou, Fulk V Comte d'Anjou, King of Jerusalem (I11149)
 
36 "Future events would demonstrate that [Nur al-Din] was wholly content to leave Antioch in the faltering grip of the Franks because, neutralized as a threat in the theatre of Levantine conflict, the Latin principality served as a useful buffer state between Aleppo and Greek Byzantium. In fact in the early years of his rule, Nur al-Din's overriding concern was the conquest of Damascus." Poitiers, Raymond de Prince of Antioch (I19193)
 
37 "Glendower, Owen" by Thomas Frederick Tout

GLENDOWER, OWEN (1359?-1416?), Welsh rebel, more accurately Owain ab Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyvrdwy or Glyndwr (Rawlinson MS. B. 464, f. 42; Owen and Blakeway, Shrewsbury, i. 181), was probably born in 1359; on 3 Sept. 1386 he was between twenty-seven and twenty-eight years old (Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, i. 254, ed. Nicolas). On his father's side he traced back his descent through the princes of Powys Vadog to Bleddyn ab Cynvyn. His father's name was Gruffydd Vychan, i.e. the Little, modernised into Vaughan (Gruffydd Llwyd in Pennant, Tour in Wales, i. 311, ed. 1778). This surname was doubtless to distinguish him from his father, Owain's grandfather, whose name was also Gruffydd, and who was the son of Madog, son of Gruffydd Vychan, son of Gruffydd of Bromfield [see Gruffydd ab Madog, d. 1269] (Bridges, Princes of South Wales, pp. 250?2). The lands of Glyndyvrdwy had long been in the family. Early in Edward II's time Gruffydd ab Madog (b. 1298) was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John L'Estrange of Knockin, near Oswestry (Rot. Parl. i. 306), and the lordships and manors of Glyndyvrdwy and Sycharth were entailed on this couple and their heirs (ib. iv. 440). Glyndyvrdwy was in Edeyrnion and a part of the old shire of Merioneth. It included the valley of the Dee between Corwen and Llangollen. Sycharth, then within the Welsh marches, is now part of the parish of Llansilin, on the borders of Shropshire and the modern county of Denbigh. Owain claimed to be descended from the old line of north Welsh princes, and thence from Cadwaladr Vendigaid and the fabulous Brutus (see Owain's letter in Adam of Usk, pp. 69?71). He also claimed descent from the old houses of Deheubarth, and, through his mother Helen, from Llewelyn ab Gruffydd (Leland, Itinerary, v. 44; Pennant, i. 302; Harl. MS. 807, f. 94). It is pretty clear, however, that Llewelyn's legitimate stock died out in his daughters. Owain also possessed in South Wales the manors of Yscoed and Gwynyoneth, but his main influence was in the north. He derived a revenue of three hundred marks a year from his lands, and was thus among the few Welsh gentlemen of large estate. He had in the north two great houses, of which the chief was at Sycharth, which, by his hospitality, became known as a ?sanctuary of bards.? The poet Iolo Goch [q. v.] has left a glowing description of the splendour of this house (text and translation in Y Cymmrodor, v. 264?73; and another translation in Pennant, i. 305). It was called Saghern by the English (Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 11). Owain had another house of only less importance at Glyndyvrdwy itself (ib. i. 12). Owain had a younger brother named Tudor.

It was afterwards believed that great prodigies attended Owain's birth, and contemporaries thought that he had magic help in his struggle against the English. The story, often told, that at the time of his birth the horses in his father's stables were found standing in blood, is really told of Edmund Mortimer in all the original authorities (?Annales Hen. IV? in Trokelowe, p. 349; Walsingham, Hist. Angl. ii. 254; Cont. Eulogium Historiarum, iii. 398; Monk of Evesham, p. 179; Holinshed).

Owain became a student of English law at Westminster, and was perhaps called to the bar (?juris apprenticius? Ann. Hen. IV, p. 333). He remained a student of ancient deeds. He subsequently became squire to the Earl of Arundel, who had large estates in North Wales and was lord of Dinas Bran, the great fortress overlooking Llangollen, not far from Owain's estates (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 388; Capgrave, De illustribus Henricis, p. 110). In 1385 he served in the Scottish campaign of Richard II (Scrope and Grosvenor Roll, i. 254). He was summoned as a witness in the famous suit of Scrope and Grosvenor, and on 3 Sept. 1386 gave evidence at Chester in favour of Robert Grosvenor's right to wear the arms azure a bend or (ib. i. 254).

Arundel was a strong partisan of the popular party, and Owain subsequently took service with Henry of Lancaster himself, afterwards Henry IV (?scutifer regi moderno,? and therefore not of Richard II, as is generally said; Ann. Hen. IV, p. 333; Walsingham, ii. 246). His connections were therefore thoroughly Lancastrian and constitutional. Yet Wales in general was strongly attached to King Richard, and when Henry IV on his accession made his son Henry prince of Wales, the French metrical chronicler prophesied that the new prince would not gain the lordship without force (Archæologia, xx. 204). Tumults became common from the time of Richard's deposition. Prince Henry's council, under Henry Percy, the famous ?Hotspur,? had little success in restoring order.

One of Owain's strongest neighbours was Reginald, lord Grey of Ruthin [q. v.] with whose house the king's tenants in Glyndyvrdwy had long been in conflict. A dispute was now caused by Owain's claim to some land in Grey's possession. It is said by the continuator of the ?Eulogium Historiarum? (whose dates are often wrong) that Owain journeyed to Westminster to complain before the Hilarytide parliament in 1401 of Grey's usurpation (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 388). But Owain was already in arms in 1400. If the story be true, it must refer to the parliament of October 1399, but there is no record of the transaction in the ?Rolls of Parliament.? The continuator tells us how the Bishop of St. Asaph, John Trevor, warned the parliament not to despise Owain. The lords replied that they did not care for the barefooted rogues, and Owain went home in a rage with his grievances unredressed.

Owain soon had another complaint. Grey had neglected to deliver a writ summoning Owain to the Scottish expedition, until it was so late that obedience was impossible. Grey then denounced him before the king as a traitor for not appearing (Monk of Evesham, p. 171). Owain now plundered and burnt Grey's estates, and cruelly murdered some of Grey's household (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 333). Grey was much occupied at the time with a quarrel with Gruffydd ab Davydd ab Gruffydd, ?the strengest thief in Wales.? The revolt spread. The rumours that King Richard was still alive kindled Welsh feeling for their deposed favourite (cf. Adam of Usk, p. 54). Owain, despite his Lancastrian connections, put himself at the head of the movement, which soon developed into a Welsh national rising against Saxon tyranny.

The rebels were from the first brilliantly successful. The clashing jurisdictions of the Prince of Wales and the marcher lords made united action among the English impossible. The castles were ill-equipped and undermanned, and, when not in Welsh hands, were in charge of Welsh deputies. The civil administration was almost entirely in native hands, and a large Welsh element had crept in even among the ?English towns.? Before long all North Wales was in revolt. Owain soon assumed the title of Prince of Wales, and gave himself the airs of a sovereign (Evesham, p. 171; Adam of Usk, p. 46). The Welsh scholars at Oxford and Cambridge left their books and joined in the rebellion. The Welsh labourers from England hurried off to Owain with whatever weapons they could seize (Rot. Parl. iii. 457). In Wales the farmers sold their cattle to buy arms (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 8). Secret meetings were held everywhere, and the bards wandered about as messengers of sedition. Many castles and ?English boroughs? fell into Owain's hands. The great border stronghold of Shrewsbury, with its negligent town-guard and large Welsh population, was hardly beyond the range of danger (F?dera, viii. 160).

Henry IV heard of the Welsh rising at Leicester on his way back from his expedition to Scotland. On 19 Sept. he issued from Northampton summonses to the levies of ten shires of the midlands and borders. He entered Wales a few days later, and wandered for a month throughout the north. He penetrated as far as Anglesey, where he drove out the Franciscan friars of Llanfaes, who, like their brethren in England, were keen partisans of King Richard, and therefore of Owain (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 388, but cf. Wylie, p. 147); but as the army began to suffer from want of provisions, and Owain kept obstinately in hiding, Henry had to return to England with a few captives. On 9 Nov. he was at Westminster, where he granted all Owain's forfeited estates to his brother, John Beaufort [q. v.] earl of Somerset.

Owain for some time hid himself with only seven companions (Adam of Usk, p. 46). His bard, Iolo Goch, lamented his disappearance in impassioned strains (the Welsh in Lloyd, Hist. of Powys Fadog, i. 220; English translation in Y Cymmrodor, iv. pt. ii. 230?2). But the rebels were soon as active as ever. In January parliament pressed hard for coercive laws. The king to a great extent accepted their proposals, but still aimed at conciliation, and on 10 March, at the petition of the Prince of Wales, issued a general pardon, from which Owain, himself, and the brothers Gwilym and Rhys, sons of Tudor, were the only exceptions. The commons of Carnarvon and Merioneth humbly tendered their thanks, and offered to pay the usual taxes. Yet with the return of spring the rebels were again active. Gwilym and Rhys seized Conway Castle on Good Friday, though on 28 May they had to give it up. On 30 May Percy won a battle near Cader Idris. He believed he had now subdued the three shires of Gwynedd, but, angry at being left to bear the expense, threw up his command. Before leaving Wales he entered into suspicious dealings with Owain.

Owain's movements during this time are very obscure. He was plainly keeping himself in the background until his agents had got all things ready. A curious letter addressed to his partisan, Henry Don, explains clearly enough his general plan of operations (it is printed in Owen and Blakeway's Shrewsbury, i. 181?2). In the spring of 1401 Owain suddenly appeared in South Wales, in the ?marches of Carmarthen,? driven there perhaps by Percy's activity in Gwynedd, or perhaps by the desire of extending the rising to the south. On 26 May the king received the news that Owain had held a great assembly of rebels in that district, ?with the purpose of invading England, and of destroying our English tongue? (Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii. 55). Henry at once hurried to Worcester to prepare for a second expedition into Wales, but, finding the accounts of it exaggerated, he abandoned the invasion to attend to pressing business in London. Owain at once hurried to Powys, where on one of the first days of June he was beaten by John Charlton. But the revolt broke out in fresh districts, and Henry Percy's retirement from the post of justice of Wales was followed by new disturbances. By the autumn all Gwynedd, Ceredigion, and Powys were actively adhering to Owain, and in fresh districts the wretched English townsmen saw their houses destroyed, or lost their lives. Welshpool, the stronghold of Edward Charlton [q. v.] was the special centre of these attacks.

In October the king and the Prince of Wales again hastily invaded Gwynedd, and ravaged the country for a month, proceeding first to Bangor and Carnarvon, and thence southwards through Meirionydd to Ceredigion, where the abbey of Strata Florida suffered the fate of Llanfaes (Usk, p. 67; see, however, for the chronological difficulties of this campaign, Henry IV). The best result to Henry was the temporary submission of Ceredigion, which deserted Owain on a promise of pardon from the king (Usk, p. 68). Owain again avoided a battle, but contrived to inflict no small injury on the English, and carried off the equipage of the Prince of Wales and other nobles to the recesses of Snowdon (ib. p. 67). On 2 Nov. Owain appeared with a great host before the walls of Carnarvon, but he was driven off by the garrison, and lost three hundred men.

Owain now affected moderation. His personal relations with Hotspur led to a fresh negotiation between him and Hotspur's father, Northumberland. With Henry's consent a messenger was sent by Northumberland, through Sir Edmund Mortimer, Hotspur's brother-in-law, to Owain, who in reply spoke unctuously of his affection for Northumberland, with whom he would rather treat than with any other lord. He expressed his desire for peace, and his readiness to meet the English lords in the marches, but for the danger caused by the resentment of the English for his supposed vow to destroy the English tongue (Ord. of the Privy Council, ii. 59?60). The council asked the king to name negotiators, and to lay down the basis of a treaty with Owain (ib. i. 175). Meanwhile Owain was writing letters and instructing messengers to the king of Scots and the lords of Ireland. These letters, preserved by Adam of Usk (pp. 69?71), contain a strange medley of bad history and prophecy, with a very practical grasp of military conditions. He wrote in French to his ?lord and cousin? of Scotland, claiming kinship on the ground of their common descent from the mythic Brutus, and begging him to assist the fulfilment of the prophecy by a loan of heavy ?men-at-arms.? He made similar applications in Latin to his ?well-beloved cousins of Ireland.? But his messengers were captured and hanged. A knight of Cardiganshire, named Davydd ab Ievan Goch, was also sent from France to Scotland on Owain's behalf, and taken at sea by English sailors.

During the winter Owain exercised jurisdiction as sovereign over the shires of Carnarvon and Merioneth (Usk, p. 69). On 30 Jan. 1402 he cruelly ravaged the lordship of Ruthin, and carried off a great spoil of cattle to Snowdon. He significantly spared the lordship of Denbigh and the other possessions of the Earl of March. A comet seemed ominous to the panic-stricken borderers (Walsingham, ii. 248). In Lent he again approached Ruthin, tempted Reginald Grey [q. v.] to a rash pursuit, and then, suddenly turning, carried off his enemy a prisoner into Snowdon (Evesham, p. 177). He now carried on his depredations more to the south, until Sir Edmund Mortimer, Hotspur's brother-in-law, and uncle to the Earl of March, gathered together against him nearly all the levies of Herefordshire, besides his Welsh tenants of Melenydd. Mortimer attacked Owain with a small following posted on a hill near Pilleth, in the modern Radnorshire, on 22 June. The Welshmen from Melenydd turned traitors and joined Owain. The Herefordshire men were defeated, with a loss variously given as two hundred in Evesham, p. 178; four hundred in ?Chron. Giles,? p. 27; more than a hundred in Walshingham, ii. 250; eleven hundred in ?Annals,? p. 341; and eight thousand in Usk, p. 75. The corpses of the slain were disgustingly mutilated by the Welshwomen (Ann. p. 341; cf. Walsingham, ii. 250). Mortimer was taken prisoner and conducted into Snowdon, but it was already rumoured that he was not an unwilling captive (Ann. u. s.), and he was treated from the first with the respect due to a possible king of England.

A third royal expedition was now undertaken. Three great armies invaded Wales from different points in the early part of September; but the elaborate plan to shut up Owain from different sides proved a signal failure. Owain found new hiding-places. The hundred thousand men suffered grievously from the cold and constant storms. The English ravaged the land and took a great spoil of cattle; but within three weeks they had returned home beaten, of course by magic, and believing that Owain could make himself invisible at will. Reginald Grey had now to purchase his ransom at a ruinous cost. Edmund Mortimer about the end of November married Owain's daughter and formed an alliance with his conqueror. On 13 Dec. he was back in his own lord- ship of Melenydd, and proclaiming that Owain's object was ?if King Richard be alive to restore him to his crown, and if not that my honoured nephew (the Earl of March), who is the right heir to the crown, shall be king of England, and that the said Owain will assert his right in Wales? (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 24?5).

Owain was now closely besieging the few remaining castles which still held out for King Henry. In April and May he gathered a great host together, and boasted that he would no longer shrink from battle if the English resisted his aggressions (ib. i. 11). But already in March the Prince of Wales had been appointed his father's lieutenant in Wales and the marches (F?dera, viii. 291). About May, Prince Henry marched into the rebels' country, but was, as usual, avoided by Owain. He burnt, however, Sycharth, Owain's chief residence, and afterwards burnt Glyndyvrdwy as well, completing his destructive foray by the devastation of the whole cymmwd of Edeyrnion and parts of Powys (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 10?13; Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii. 61?2. Mr. Wylie is plainly right in assigning Henry's report of 15 May to this year and not to 1402, as Ellis and Nicolas thought). The prince eagerly clamoured for men and money to relieve the hard-pressed garrisons of Harlech and Aberystwith (Ordinances of the Privy Council, ii. 63).

Owain now turned his attention to South Wales, the marches of which had hitherto been quite free from his inroads. The defection of Edmund Mortimer was followed by the rising of the marcher lordships included in the modern Radnorshire and Breconshire. The rebels besieged Brecon, but were forced to raise the siege by the sheriff of Herefordshire on Sunday 1 July. Owain now for the first time went south of Cardiganshire. On 2 July his arrival in the vale of Towy was followed by a general rising, even in the plain country, and the siege of Dynevor Castle, near Llandilo, by the insurgents. On 3 July Owain appeared at Llandovery, captured the castle, and encamped his host there and at Llandilo for the night. Next day it was believed that he was marching towards Brecon, but he sent only a part of his forces thither, where on 7 July (Saturday) they renewed the siege. He now received oaths of fealty from all Carmarthenshire (much smaller then than the present county), from the Welsh subjects of the marcher lordships of Kidwelly, Carnwallon, and Ys Kennin. He slept on the night of the 4th at Drysllwyn between Llandilo and Carmarthen. On the 5th he was before the gates of the capital of South Wales. On Friday 6 July he took and burnt Carmarthen town, and received the submission of the castle. He next proposed to march to Kidwelly, being safe of the adhesion of the districts of Kidwelly, Gower, and Glamorgan. He sent for a seer, Hopcyn ab Thomas of Gower, to speak with him under a truce at Carmarthen, and begged for an oracle. The seer replied that Owain would be taken in a brief time between Carmarthen and Gower, under a black banner. Thus deterred by superstition from his eastward advance, Owain gladly turned westward on the news that the lord of Carew had assembled against him the Englishry of the Pembrokeshire palatinate. On Monday 9 July Owain lodged at St. Clears, a little town ten miles west of Carmarthen, with 8,240 spears, and ravaged all the surrounding country. But he still shirked a pitched battle. All Tuesday was occupied by negotiations. That night Owain slept at the little port of Laugharne, three miles south of St. Clears. But the negotiations led to nothing, and Owain resolved to retreat to the hills to the northward. He sent seven hundred men to search the ways, and on Thursday 12 July the exploring party fell in with Lord Carew's men, and were all slain. This led Owain to retire to Carmarthen. The exceptional minuteness with which the movements of Owain can be traced during these ten days is due to accidental preservation of the letters of the panic-stricken keepers of the English castles, which have been printed in Ellis's ?Original Letters,? 2nd ser. (i. 13?23) and Hingeston's ?Royal Letters? (pp. 138?152). All South Wales had now joined the north, for the storm at last broke in Morganwg and Gwent. Usk, Caerleon, and Newport fell into Owain's hands (Adam of Usk, p. 75).

The Percies now suddenly broke into rebellion against Henry IV, having previously established relations with Owain (Hardyng, Chronicle, p. 353, ed. 1812). Owain must still have been in the south when they were in full march for Shrewsbury, hoping that he would join them (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 361). Many Welshmen now joined their ranks, but when, on 21 July, the battle of Shrewsbury crushed for a time the rebellion, Owain had not been able to arrive, or possibly, as one chronicler suggests, feared to put himself too much in the power of his allies (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 396; cf. Tyler, Henry V, i. 164?9, 385?93). But after the battle he ravaged Herefordshire and Shropshire, paying scanty regard to the informal truces which the terror-stricken borderers had sought to conclude with him (Royal Letters, p. 155; Ord. of the Privy Council, ii. 77). He even crossed the Severn, and returned home to his mountains laden with booty (Adam of Usk, p. 82).

About the middle of September Henry IV marched from Hereford on his fourth expedition against Owain, and reached Carmarthen on 24 Sept. He found no enemy, and all he could do was to revictual and strengthen the castles and walled towns. But it was hard to get garrisons to stay in these remote and dangerous posts (Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 287), and after the king's withdrawal things became much what they had been before, except that Owain never quite got such a hold over the south as in the summer of 1403. The king had hardly left the country when a French and Breton fleet appeared in Carmarthen Bay, and spread a new panic in Kidwelly (Royal Letters, p. 162), but they were able to effect nothing against the new strength of the castles, and marched north to Gwynedd. In January 1404 Owain began with their aid his winter attack on Carnarvon, having now ?engines, sows, and ladders of great length,? and only a garrison of twenty-eight to hold the huge fortress against him; but he failed here also, though during the spring Harlech, with its garrison reduced to five English and sixteen Welsh, agreed to surrender to him on a certain day (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 38). Early in 1404 Owain was again in the south and captured Cardiff, the capital of the Glamorgan palatinate, burning the whole town, except the street in which his allies the Franciscans had their convent. But he seized the books and chalices which the friars had deposited for safety in the castle, and on their remonstrating replied: ?Why did you put your goods in the castle? If you had kept them at home, they would have been safe? (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 401).

The year 1404 marks the highest point of Owain's power. On 10 May, ?in the fourth year of his reign as prince,? Owain issued from Dolgelly letters patent in sovereign style, ?as prince of Wales by the Grace of God,? appointing ?Master Griffith Young, Doctor of Decretals, our chancellor,? and John Hanmer, his own brother-in-law, his special ambassadors to conclude a perpetual or temporary league with the French (F?dera, viii. 356). The death of Philip of Burgundy had just brought Louis of Orleans into power, so that the enemies of Lancaster were strongly in the ascendant. The ambassadors were splendidly entertained, the French thinking that Hanmer was Owain's brother (?Religieux de Saint-Denys,? iii. 164, in Collection des Documents Inédits). King Charles received them in person, and, learning from Hanmer that Owain loved arms above all other things, sent him a present of a gilded helmet, cuirass, and sword (Religieux de Saint-Denys; cf. Juvenal des Ursins, p. 421, in Panthéon Littéraire). Jacques de Bourbon, count of La Marche, was appointed to treat with them, and on 14 July a treaty of alliance was solemnly concluded at Paris between Charles and the envoys of the ?illustrious and most dread prince of Wales? against their common foe, ?Henry of Lancaster? (F?dera, viii. 365?8). A list of Welsh harbours was sent by Owain to aid the French in their landing, and on 12 Jan. 1405 he ratified the treaty in his castle of Aberystwith, now at last captured from the English. But the expedition sent to help him under the Count of La Marche proved a disgraceful failure.

Owain had never spared churches or churchmen in his forays, and had burnt to the ground the cathedrals of St. Asaph and Bangor, and reduced to beggary the highborn nuns of Usk (Adam of Usk, p. 90). But, as a necessary result of this French alliance, he now recognised the French pope, Benedict XIII, who reigned at Avignon, hoping thus to free Wales from even ecclesiastical subjection to the schismatic English, who adhered to the Roman pontiff, and perhaps also to restore the fabled archbishopric of St. David's (Pauli, Geschichte von England, v. 33). Bishop Young of Bangor, a faithful partisan of Henry, had not dared to show his face in his diocese since the outbreak of the rebellion, and was now translated to Rochester. At Owain's request a Lewis or Llewelyn Bifort was ?provided? with Young's bishopric and apparently consecrated by the Avignon pope. The poets boasted that ?Rome is Owain's friend secure,? and that Owain is ?well begirt with arms of Rome? (Y Cymmrodor, iv. 230, vi. 99). Bifort long remained one of Owain's most trusted partisans (Haddan and Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, i. 668?9). In 1404 John Trevor, bishop of St. Asaph, deserted Henry for Owain, though he had received livings in commendam to compensate for the losses he suffered from Owain's depredations. The Cistercian abbot of Strata Florida and the whole Franciscan order had long been Owain's active partisans. Crusading zeal against schismatics henceforth inflamed the patriotism of the Welsh.

Owain now aspired to reign over an organised state in a regular way, with his chancellor, secretaries, notaries, envoys, letters patent and close. His great and privy seals, well and artistically wrought, are figured from a French impression in ?Archæologia,? xxv. 616?19; Tyler's ?Henry of Monmouth,? i. 251, ii. frontispiece; and the ?Archæologia Cambrensis,? new ser. ii. 121. They represent him as an old-looking man with a forked beard. Owain now summoned a Welsh parliament to Harlech or Machynlleth, consisting of ?four of the most sufficient persons of every cymmwd under his obedience? (Adam of Usk, p. 83; Adam of Usk, 2nd ser. i. 43). The English watched with much anxiety the proceedings of his parliament, though Adam of Usk made merry over its absurdity. But no record of its acts has come down to us. If there is any truth in the story of Hywel Sele (Pennant, i. 324), it shows that Owain was not without his difficulties in dealing with his disorderly subjects.

So strong was Owain now, that no general expedition was attempted against him this year, though it was feared he would invade the marches (Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 223). Prince Henry defended the southern border, but Shropshire made a truce with Owain, and Edward Charlton, whose Powys tenants had mostly gone over, by similar means protected his town of Welshpool.

Early in 1405 Owain's forces were more insolent and violent than ever (ib. i. 246). It seems to have been now, if ever, that Owain, Mortimer, and Northumberland signed the famous tripartite treaty for dividing England, ?to fulfil the prophecy? which gave Owain as his share all Wales and the lands west of a line drawn from the Mersey to the source of the Trent and thence to the Severn, at a point just north of Worcester, after which it followed the Severn to its mouth (Ellis, 2nd ser. i. 27?8, from Sloane MS. 1776, f. 42 b; Chron. Giles, p. 39; Hall, p. 28, whose account, followed by Shakespeare, is very inaccurate; Tyler, Henry V, i. 150). Yet in March Owain suffered two damaging defeats from Prince Henry in Gwent, in one of which his son Gruffydd was taken prisoner. Later in the year his ?chancellor? and John Hanmer were also captured (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 399; Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 402; Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 248?50). All were sent to the Tower. Archbishop Scrope's rising for a time called away King Henry, and in July the long-expected French forces landed in Milford Haven, under the Marshal de Rieux and the Lord of Hugueville (F?dera, viii. 406?7; Monstrelet, liv. i. ch. xv.). The French urged Owain to besiege Carmarthen, which soon fell for the second time into rebel hands, the defenders receiving Owain's letters patent allowing them to go wherever they liked (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 415; Wals. ii. 272). But the English ships were active, reinforcements were cut off, and before long knights and squires went back to France, leaving only light-armed troops and crossbowmen (Religieux de Saint-Denys, iii. 328). In September Henry IV was at Hereford, preparing for a fresh invasion of Wales. He prevented Lady Despenser escaping to her Glamorganshire tenantry, and perhaps joining Owain (Wals. Ypodigma Neustriæ, p. 412). He relieved the long-beleaguered castle of Coyty in Glamorgan (Cont. Eul. Hist. iii. 408). But after losing transport and treasure in sudden floods, he was forced to go back to Worcester, having accomplished nothing (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 414; Wals. ii. 271). On 14 Nov. Francis de Court, lord of the Pembroke palatinate, bought a truce from Owain for 200l. (Fenton, Pembrokeshire, App. pp. 43?4).

Henry IV's worst misfortunes were now over, and Owain's influence was henceforward on the wane. In 1406 Prince Henry received power to restore rebel Welshmen to favour through fines and redemptions (F?dera, viii. 436?7). On 23 April the Welsh were severely beaten, and a son of Owain slain (Ann. Hen. IV, p. 418; Wals. ii. 273). Northumberland and Bardolf now took refuge with Owain, and fresh ships were sent from France, but only a few of them reached Wales safely. In 1407 Northumberland and Bardolf left Wales for Scotland, taking Owain's two bishops with them, their motive for leaving Wales being ?fear of King Henry? (Liber Pluscardensis, i. 348). In the same year Edward Charlton's tenants returned to the allegiance of their lord, and received charters of pardon for their defection (Montgomeryshire Collections, iv. 325?344, Powysland Club). In the summer Prince Henry captured Aberystwith, but Owain won it back by stratagem in the autumn (Wals.. ii. 277). It was soon, however, besieged again, and, Owain failing to relieve it, it surrendered to the prince on 1 Nov. (F?dera, viii. 419 (misdated), 497?9).

The ruin of Owain's efforts was soon assured. In 1408 Northumberland met his final defeat, and Lewis, bishop of Bangor, who was with him, was taken prisoner (Wals. ii. 278). The south now seems to have been entirely reconquered, and Henry appointed officers in such nests of rebellion as Northern Cardiganshire (F?dera, viii. 547). Yet Owain still held out bravely in the north, and pressed the northern marchers so hard that they made private truces with him, which the king called upon them to repudiate (ib. viii. 611). In 1411 large English forces were still kept in Wales to supplement the resources of the local lords (Ord. of the Privy Council, ii. 18). But on 21 Dec. 1411 the king, at the request of parliament, issued a pardon to all his subjects except Owain and the impostor Thomas of Trumpington. Owain still, however, avoided capture. In the summer of 1412 he was again in South Wales, and David Gam [q. v.] could only be released from his clutches by a large ransom and a formal treaty (F?dera, viii. 753). But the Welsh now seldom rose in arms (Tyler, i. 243, from Pells Rolls), and none took the trouble to hunt Owain out of his lairs.

The accession of Henry V was followed by the issue of a general pardon, 9 April 1413, from which Owain was no longer excepted. In June 1413 his wife, his daughter, Lady Mortimer, and other children and grandchildren fell into the king's hands (ib. i. 245). But the old hero still scorned to surrender. At last on 5 July 1415 Sir Gilbert Talbot was appointed to treat with Owain, and admit him to the king's grace and obedience (F?dera, ix. 283). On 24 Feb. 1416 Talbot had fresh powers to deal with Owain's son Maredudd (ib. ix. 330). It is clear that Owain was then still alive, but this is the last that is heard of him. The English of a later generation believed that he died of sheer starvation among the mountains (Holinshed, iii. 536; Mirrour for Magistrates). Tradition speaks of his haunting the homes of his sons-in-law at Scudamore and Monington, and being buried in Monington churchyard (Pennant, i. 368). When Henry V sailed to France it was still necessary to station large bodies of troops at Cymmer and Strata Florida. Lewis Glyn Cothi's story of the sixty-two female pensioners entertained by Owain in his old age suggests that he died in peace (Gwaith, p. 401).

Owain's wife was Margaret, daughter of Sir David Hanmer of Flintshire, a justice under Richard II (Pennant, i. 307). She was, says Iolo Goch,

The best of wives.
Eminent woman of a knightly family,
Her children come in pairs,
A beautiful nest of chieftains.

Owain also had a numerous illegitimate offspring, whose genealogy is given, not perhaps on much authority, in Lloyd's ?Hist. of Powys Fadog,? i. 216?17, from Harl. MS. 2299. Of his sons, one, Gruffydd, was captured by the English in 1405, and was still in prison in 1411 (Ord. of the Privy Council, i. 304; Tyler, i. 245). Another was slain in 1406. A third, Maredudd, is noted as living in 1421 (Notes and Queries, 5th ser. i. 234), but he died a few years later. One daughter (Catharine) married Edmund Mortimer, another John Hanmer, her cousin (ib. i. 234). In 1433 the direct line of Owain was represented by his daughter Alice, wife of Sir John Scudamore of Ewyas, who, in consequence of a parliamentary decision, in 1431, that Owain's attainder was not to affect his heirs to entailed lands, claimed Glyndyvrdwy and Sycharth from the Earl of Somerset, then a prisoner in France (Rot. Parl. iv. 377, 440). Another daughter, Margaret, is vaguely mentioned as wife of a Herefordshire gentleman named Monington. Lewis Glyn Cothi, a bard of the next generation, addressed poems to and wrote an elegy on another daughter, Gwenllian, wife of Philip ab Rhys of Cenarth, near St. Harmon's in the modern Radnorshire (Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi, pp. 392?6, 400?2).

[The notices of Owain in the chronicles are scanty, inexact, and confusing; the most important references are in Adam of Usk, ed. Thompson; Annals of Henry IV, published with Trokelowe in the Rolls Ser.; the Monk of Evesham's Hist. Ricardi Secundi, ed. Hearne; Walsingham's Hist. Anglicana, vol. ii., and Ypodigma Neustriæ, both in Rolls Ser.; the continuation of the Eulogium Historiarum, also in Rolls Ser.; and for French relations the Chronique du Religieux de Saint-Denys in the Collection des Documents Inédits. More copious and clearer are the documentary authorities, of which the chief in print are Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 1?43; Hingeston's Royal and Historical Letters of the Reign of Henry IV, pp. 35, 69?72, 136?64; Nicolas's Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, vols. i. ii.; Rymer's F?dera, vols. viii. ix., original edit.; and Rolls of Parliament, vol. iii. There are no Welsh chronicles, but some particulars can be gleaned from the bards, particularly Iolo Goch, Gruffydd Llwyd, and Lewis Glyn Cothi. Of modern accounts, the most lengthy from the Welsh point of view are the life in Pennant's Tour in Wales, i. 302?69 (ed. 1778), and Thomas's Memoirs of Owen Glendower. Neither is critical. Nothing practically is added to them in Morgan's Historical and Traditionary Notices of Owain Glyndwr in Archæologia Cambrensis, new ser. ii. 24?41, 113?122, or in the recently published account in Laws's Little England beyond Wales. The best modern accounts are in Pauli's Geschichte von England, vol. v.; Tyler's careful and complete Hist. of Henry V, vol. i.; and, so far as it extends, Wylie's Hist. of Henry IV, 1399?1404, which is, despite some errors in the Welsh details, by far the fullest and most satisfactory.]

T. F. T.
 
Glyndŵr, Owain Lord of Glyndŵr (I17674)
 
38 "He had asked for assistance against the Turks, but he had not bargained upon he united strength of Europe gathering at his gates; he could never be sure whether these warriors aspired to Jerusalem so much as Constantinople, nor whether they would restore to his Empire any formely Byzantine territory they might take from the Turks. He offered the Crusaders provisions, subsidies, transport, military aid, and, for the leaders, handsome bribes; in return he asked that the nobles should swear allegiance to him as their feudal sovereign; any lands taken by them were to be held in fealty to him. The nobles, softened by silver, swore." Komnenos, Alexios I Byzantine Emperor (I19336)
 
39 "He left on crusade in [late 1185], was taken prisoner at the battle of Hittin 4 Jul 1187, ransomed by the Templars but died in Palestine or on his way back."  Mowbray, Roger de (I12652)
 
40 "He married secondly, in 1582, Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Sydenham of Luxborough co. Somerset, cousin of the aforesaid Sir John Sydenham, by Ann Sydenham sister of the said Sir John, by whom he had issue: 1, Dorothy; 2, Elizabeth; 3, Frances; 4, Eobert (afterwards Sir Eobert Poyntz son and heir); 5, Hugh; 6, Nicholas; and 7, John. Dame Elizabeth died in childbed, and was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster, 7th December 1595."
 
Family F3208
 
41 "Here in Mobile, hardly more than an hour's drive from the site of Fort Mims, lives the great-great-granddaughter of Red Eagle, a princess of the Royal Family of the Wind and daughter of the conquering Muscogees, who welded all tribes in this section into the far-flung Creek nation. ...

Her name is Miss Eunice Weatherford. With her mother she lives in a shotgun bungalow at 1916 Old Government Street. ...

In her late twenties, dark-haired, dark-eyed and fair ... she has 60 (babies) to look after. ... They are babies that were born in the charity ward of the Mobile City Hospital.

An unemployed nurse, she is now employed by the Works Progress Administration."

Mobile Press-Register, 17 May 1936 
Weatherford, Eunice Brown (I6207)
 
42 "Here lieth Sir William Huddiffeild, knight, Attorney-general to King Edward IV, and of the Council to King Henry VII, and Justice of Oyer and Determiner; which died the l0th day of March, in the year of our Lord, 1499. On whose soul Jesus have mercy, Amen. Honor Deo et Gloria"  Huddesfield of Shillingford, William (I6327)
 
43 "I would not marry William E. Woodruff if every hair on his head were gold and strung with pearls!" Miss Jane Georgine Woodruff, recalling her mother's early appraisal of her father. Family F3373
 
44 "In 1109, says Orderic Vitalis, Elias remarried to Agnes, the daughter of William of Poitou and relict of Alfonso VI of Castile. However, it seems likely that Orderic confused two different wives of Alfonso, and that it was the latter's widow, the Frenchwoman Beatrice, known to have returned to her homeland on Alfonso's death, whom Elias married. She died the following year, however." Family F5973
 
45 "In 1399, when Bolingbroke staged his successful coup, the rightful heir to the throne of England was Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, a child of nearly eight. Edmund was the great-grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III."

 
Mortimer, Edmund 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster (I13064)
 
46 "In June, the count of Holland met with an unfortunate accident - English involvement cannot be entirely ruled out...." of Holland, Floris V Count of Holland (I14746)
 
47 "In Memory of Margaret P. Bowie, born in Abbeville S. C. the 13th of July 1777 and died in Dallas County the-th Dec. 1830. She was daughter of Gen. Andrew & Rebecca Pickins, who was Rebecca Calhoun of S.C. From the example of pious parents her mind became early with the principle of Christian religion which she adored, and zealously followed through the remainder of her life. Filled with charity and the most extended benevolence worked her path through Life, she was an affectionate wife a gentle mother and a generous friend. In none were there virtues more conspicuous. Her health had been delicate for more than 20 years and her last sufferings were greatly and she bore all With truly Christian meekness, looking forward to that crown of glory Promised to the humble followers of the Lamb, and died in the full triumph of faith, a husband and only daughter deplore their loss, and raised this final monument to her dear memory." Pickens, Margaret (I15282)
 
48 "In the 1140s the papacy and Byzantium were directly threatened by Roger's expansionist policies and therefore looked to their mutual ally, Germany, to counter the Sicilian's aggression. Conrad's decision to join the crusade threatened to disrupt this web of interdependence, exposing Rome and Constantinople to attache. Matters were complicated further by Louis Vii's relatively amiable relations with King Roger, a fact which unsettled Eugenius III and made the Greeks wary of a Sicilian-French invasion plot." Sicily, Roger II of King of Sicily (I19400)
 
49 "Individuals who, the next September, purchase Menunkatuck, afterwards Guilford, enter into the following covenant: We whose names are hereunder written, intending by God's gracious permission to plant ourselves in New England, and, if it may be, in the southerly part about Quinnipiack, we do faithfully promise each to each, for ourselves and our families, and those that belong to us, that we will, the Lord assisting us, sit down and join ourselves together in one entire plantation, and to be helpful each to the other in any common work, according to every man's ability, and as need shall require; As for our gathering together in a church way, and the choice of officers and members to be joined together in that way, we do refer ourselves until such time as it shall please God to settle us in our plantation." Dowd, Henry (I17544)
 
50 "It has been generally believed that [William] was first married in 1088, at age sixteen, to Ermengarde, daughter of Fulk IV of Anjou. Biographers have described Ermengarde as beautiful and well-educated, though suffering from severe mood swings. However, Ruth Harvey's 1993 critical investigation shows the assumption of William's marriage to Ermengarde to be based largely on an error in a nineteenth-century secondary source and it is highly likely that Philippa of Toulouse was William's only wife." Family F4876
 

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